Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 4 | 2 | 91-103
Article title

The Effect of Immediate Verbal Feedback on the Efficiency and the Effectiveness of Swimming

Title variants
Languages of publication
Background: The aim of this study was to determine differences in stroke length and swimming time over a distance of 25m in a control and an experimental group from the provision of immediate verbal feedback.Material/Methods: The study involved 10 people practicing swimming. They were divided into an experimental and a control group. The subjects performed four trials, swimming the front crawl technique at the distance of 25 meters with a maximum speed. A specially designed research tool enabled the swimmers to obtain immediate verbal feedback during the test. In the control group no immediate verbal feedback was provided. In the experimental group the immediate verbal feedback was provided for the whole duration of swimming.Results: In the experimental group the average swimming stroke length with the front crawl technique has increased by 2.63% and the average swimming time decreased by 4.34% through the provision of immediate verbal feedback.Conclusions: In the experimental group, which obtained immediate verbal feedback, an increase in the average stroke length and a reduction in the average swimming time at the distance of 25m were observed.
Physical description
1 - 1 - 2012
2 - 7 - 2012
  • Schmidt RA, Wrisberg C. Motor Learning and Performance. A situation-Based Learning Approach. 4th edn. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 2008.
  • Schmidt RA, Lee T. Motor Control and Learning. A Behavioral Emphasis, 4th edn. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2005.
  • Magill R. The influence of augmented feedback on skill learning depends on characteristics of the skill and the learner. Quest 1994;46(3):314-327.[Crossref]
  • Latash M. Progress in Motor Control - Bernstein's Traditions in Movement Studies. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1998.
  • Zatoń K. Znaczenie komunikacji dydaktycznej w procesie kształcenia motorycznego [in Polish] [Importance of didactical communication in motor development process]. In: Aouil B, Maliszewski WJ, editors. Media - Komunikacja - Zdrowie: Wyzwania, Szanse, Zagrożenia. Toruń: Adam Marszałek Publisher; 2008, 119-128.
  • Schmidt RA, Lange C, Young D. Optimizing summary knowledge for skill learning. Human Movement Science 1990;9:325-348. DOI: 10.1016/0167-9457(90)[Crossref]
  • Seat J, Wrisberg C. The visual instruction system. Res Q Exercise Sport 1996;67(1):106-108.[Crossref]
  • Proteau L. On the specificity of learning and the role of visual information for movement control. Vision and Motor Control 1992;85:67-103.
  • Zatoń K. Struktura przekazów słownych nauczycieli wychowania fizycznego [in Polish] [Structure of verbal information of PE teachers]. Zeszyty Naukowe AWF we Wrocławiu 1989;50:55-66.
  • Hebert E, Landin D. Effects of a learning model and augmented feedback on tennis skill acquisition. Res Q Exercise Sport 1994;65(3):250-7.[Crossref]
  • Pyżow W. W. Zastosowanie metod natychmiastowej informacji w początkowym okresie nauczania pływania [in Polish] [Application of methods of immediate verbal information in early stage of swimming learning]. Kultura Fizyczna 1969;10:468-482.
  • Pérez P, Llana S, Brizuela G, Encarnación A. Effects of three feedback conditions on aerobic swim speeds. J Sport Sci Med 2009;8:30-36.
  • Fiłon M. Perfecting the back stroke using the information system which stabilizes spatio-temporal parameters of swimming technique [in Polish]. Zeszyty Naukowe AWF we Wrocławiu 1985;38:147-156.
  • Petriaev A, Kleshnev I. Diagnostic. Training and realisation of strength condition of swimmers with use of feedback diagnostic simulator -"ART". Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences 2006;6(Suppl 2):244-246.
  • Stainbsy W, Gladden L, Barclay J. Wilson B. Exercise efficiency: validity of base-line subtractions. J Appl Physiol 1980;48(3):518-522.
  • Alexander RM. Swimming. In: Alexander RM, Goldspink G, eds. Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion, London: Chapman & Hall; 1977, 222-249.
  • Alberty M, Sidney M, Pelayo P, Toussaint H. Stroking characteristics during time to exhaustion tests. Med Sci Sport Exer 2009;41(3):637-644. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818acfba[Crossref]
  • Kotarbiński T. Traktat o dobrej robocie [in Polish] [Treatise on the good work]. Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków: PWN; 2000.
  • Craig A, Pendergast D. Relationships of stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. Med Sci Sport 1979;11(3):278-283.
  • Plagenhoef S. Patterns of Human Motion - a Cinematographic Analysis. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc.; 1971.
  • Lee T, Swinnen S, Serrien D. Cognitive Effort and Motor Learning. Quest 1993;46(3):328-344.
  • Zatoń K. Optymalizacja słownej metody nauczania pływania stylem klasycznym [in Polish] [Optimization of verbal method of teaching breaststroke]. Kultura Fizyczna 1993;7-8: 19-21.
  • Salo D, Riewald S, eds. Complete Conditioning for Swimming. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 2008, 6.
  • Chollet D, Pelayo P, Delaplace C, Tourny C, Sidney M. Stroking characteristic variations in the 100-M freestyle for male swimmers of differing skill. Percept Motor Skills 1997;85(1):167-177.
  • Ungerer D. On the theory of sensorimotor learning. Ed.3. [in German] Schorndorf: Hoffman; 1971.
  • Hay JG, Guimaraes ACS, Grimston SKA. Quantitative Look at Swimming Biomechanics. In: Hay JG, editor. Starting, Stroking & Turning. A Compilation of Research on the Biomechanics of Swimming. The University of Iowa, Iowa: Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science; 1983-86, 1-4.
  • Corder GW, Foreman DI. Nonparametric Statistics for Non-Statisticians: A Step-by-Step Approach, Hoboken (NJ): Wiley; 2009.
  • Zatoń K, Szczepan S. Immediate verbal feedback in managing swimming economy. In: Klarowicz A, Szczepan S, editors. Book of Abstracts The 6th International Symposium "Science & Swimming", Wrocław: AWF; 2012, 76.
  • Avischious T, Edson G, Leonard J. Foundations of Coaching. ASCA. USA Swimming. Colorado Springs; 2008.
  • Marteniuk RG. Information Processing in Motor Skills. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston; 1976.
  • Wulf G, Shea C. Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning. Psychonomic Bulletin Review 2002;9(2):185-211.[Crossref]
  • Schmidt RA. Motor schema theory after 27 years: reflections and implications for a new theory. Res Q Exercise Sport 2003; 74(4):366-75.[Crossref]
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.