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2012 | 4 | 2 | 91-103

Article title

The Effect of Immediate Verbal Feedback on the Efficiency and the Effectiveness of Swimming


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Background: The aim of this study was to determine differences in stroke length and swimming time over a distance of 25m in a control and an experimental group from the provision of immediate verbal feedback.Material/Methods: The study involved 10 people practicing swimming. They were divided into an experimental and a control group. The subjects performed four trials, swimming the front crawl technique at the distance of 25 meters with a maximum speed. A specially designed research tool enabled the swimmers to obtain immediate verbal feedback during the test. In the control group no immediate verbal feedback was provided. In the experimental group the immediate verbal feedback was provided for the whole duration of swimming.Results: In the experimental group the average swimming stroke length with the front crawl technique has increased by 2.63% and the average swimming time decreased by 4.34% through the provision of immediate verbal feedback.Conclusions: In the experimental group, which obtained immediate verbal feedback, an increase in the average stroke length and a reduction in the average swimming time at the distance of 25m were observed.









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1 - 1 - 2012
2 - 7 - 2012


  • Department of Swimming, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland
  • Department of Swimming, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland


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