Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2011 | 3 | 3 | 147-153

Article title

Differences in Force-Velocity Characteristics of Upper and Lower Limbs of Male Kickboxers


Title variants

Languages of publication



Background: Despite the increasing popularity of kickboxing, few studies have been conducted with regard to the physiology or the biomechanics of this sport. The aim of the present study is to examine the ratios of mechanical characteristics between upper and lower limbs of male kickboxers.Material/Methods: Fourteen male Caucasians, all members of recreational sport clubs, aged 21.77 (5.19) yr [mean (standard deviation)], body height 1.78 (0.067) m, body mass 75.4 (8.9) kg, body fat 14 (5) % and somatotype 3.5-4.9-2.3, performed the Force-velocity (F-v) test for both upper and lower extremities. The F-v test included five supramaximal pedal sprints, each lasting 7 sec, against incremental braking force (20-60 N for upper limbs and 30-70 N for lower limbs), on modified arm-cranking and on a cycle ergometer (Ergomedics 874, Monark, Sweden).Results: Maximal anaerobic power, Pmax, of upper limbs was associated with Pmax of lower limbs (r = 0.81, P < 0.001) and their ratio was 0.464 (0.079). The respective values of correlation coefficients of the theoretical maximal force, F0, were r = 0.63 (P < 0.05) and 0.57 (0.133), and of velocity, v0, r = 0.44 (P = 0.12) and 0.829 (0.095).Conclusions: In spite of moderate correlations between upper and lower limbs' F0 and v0, a stronger relationship was found with regard to Pmax. Separate upper and lower extremities' power output measures would be useful in evaluating training programs and in understanding the importance of power output for kickboxing performance.










Physical description


1 - 1 - 2011
20 - 10 - 2011


  • Division of Physical and Cultural Education, Hellenic Army Academy, Greece
  • Division of Physical and Cultural Education, Hellenic Army Academy, Greece
  • National Technical University of Athens, Greece
  • Department of Physiotherapy, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic


  • Buse GJ. Kickboxing. In: Kordi R, Maffuli N, Wroble RR, Wallace WA, editors. Combat Sports Medicine. London: Springer; 2009, 331-350.
  • Zabucovec R, Tiidus PM. Physiological and anthropometric profile of elite kick-boxers. J Strength Cond Res 1995;9(4):240-242.[WoS]
  • Machado SM, Osorio RAL, Silva NS, Magini M. Biomechanical analysis of the muscular power of martial arts athletes. Med Biol Eng Comput 2010;48:573-577.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
  • Devonport TJ. Perceptions of the contribution of psychology to success in elite kickboxing. J Sports Sci Med (CSSI) 2006:99-107.[PubMed]
  • Vokac Z, Bell H, Bautz-Holter E, Rodahl K. Oxygen uptake/heart rate relationship in leg and arm exercise, sitting and standing. J Appl Physiol 1975;39(1):54-59.[PubMed]
  • Davis JA, Vodak P, Wilmore JH, Vodak J, Kurtz P. Anaerobic threshold and maximal aerobic power for three modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol 1976;41(4):544-550.[PubMed]
  • Kang JIE, Robertson RJ, Goss FL, et al. Metabolic efficiency during arm and leg exercise at the same relative intensities. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29(3):377-382.[Crossref]
  • Koppo K, Bouckaert J, Jones AM. Oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity arm and leg exercise. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2002;133(3):241-250.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Ayalon A, Inbar O, Bar-Or O. Relationships among measurements of explosive strength and anaerobic power. In: Nelson RC, Morehouse CA, editors. International Series on Sport Science 1: Biomechanics IV. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press; 1974, 527-532.
  • Bosco C, Luhtanen P, Komi PV. A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. Eur J Appl Physiol 1983;50:273-282.[Crossref]
  • Vandewalle H, Peres G, Heller J, Monod H. All out anaerobic capacity tests on cycle ergometers, a comparative study on men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 1985;54:222-229.[Crossref]
  • Nikolaidis P. Differences in the force-velocity characteristics between upper and lower limbs in male students. Acta Universitatis Carolinae Kinanthropologica 2006;42(1):63-74.
  • Parizkova J. Lean body mass and depot fat during autogenesis in humans. In: Parizkova J, Rogozkin V, editors. Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health: International Series on Sport Sciences. Baltimore: University Park Press; 1978, pp. 22.
  • Heath BH, Carter JEL. A modified somatotype method. Am J Physical Anthropol 1967;27:57-74.[Crossref]
  • Enoka RM. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1994.
  • Papadopoulos V, Kefala I, Nikolaidis P. Mechatronic and software application of Wingate test. In: Proceedings of 11th International Conference of Sport Kinetics, 25-27/9, Halkidiki, Greece 2009.
  • Vandewalle H, Peres G, Sourabie B, Stouvenel O, Monod H. Force-velocity characteristics and maximal anaerobic power during cranking exercise in young swimmers. Int J Sports Med 1989;10:439-445.[Crossref]
  • Chamari K, Ahmaidi S, Fabre C, Masse-Biron J, Prefaut C. Anaerobic and aerobic peak power output and the force-velocity relatonship in endurance-trained athletes: effects of aging. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1995;71:230-234.[Crossref]
  • Adach Z, Jaskolska A, Jaskolski A. Influence of age tested men on anaerobic-phosphagenic performance and its components, during arm's and leg's work. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport 1999;43:37-45.
  • Jaskolska A, Goossens P, Veenstra B, Jaskolski A, Skinner JS. Comparison of treadmill and cycle ergometer measurements of force-velocity relationships and power output. Int J Sports Med 1999;20:192-197.[PubMed]
  • Linossier MT, Dormois D, Fouquet R, Geyssant A, Denis C. Use of the force-velocity test to determine the optimal braking force for a sprint exercise on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1996;74:420-427.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Mercier B, Granier P, Mercier J, Trouquet J, Prefaut C. Anaerobic and aerobic components during arm-crank exercise in sprint and middle-distance swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1993;66:461-466.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Heller J. Laboratory manual for Human and Exercise Physiology. Prague: Charles University in Prague teaching texts; 2005.
  • Lanza IR, Towse TF, Caldwell GE, Wigmore DM, Kent-Braun JA. Effects of age on human muscle torque, velocity and power in two muscle groups. J Appl Physiol 2003;95:2361-2369.[PubMed]
  • Metter EJ, Talbot LA, Schrager M, Conwit RA. Arm-cranking muscle power and arm isometric muscle strength are independent predictors of all-cause mortality in men. J Appl Physiol 2004;96:814-821.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Maughan RJ, Watson JS, Weir J. Muscle strength and cross-sectional area in man: a comparison of strength-trained and untrained subjects. Brit J Sports Med 1984;18:149-157.[Crossref]
  • Abe T, Kearns CF, Fukunaga T. Sex differences in whole body skeletal muscle mass measured by magnetic resonance imaging and its distribution in young Japanese adults. Brit J Sports Med 2003;37:436-440.[Crossref]
  • Zatsiorsky VM. Kinetics of Human Motion. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2002.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.