Muscle Strength and Power of Elite Female and Male Swimmers
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Background: The aim of the study was to examine gender differences in the maximal power and height of rise of the body mass centre, measured in ACMJ (akimbo counter movement jump), BCMJ (bounce counter movement jump) and CMJ (counter movement jump) and maximal muscle torque in elite swimmers who have a similar training load during the season.Material/Methods: Eight male and eight female elite swimmers competing at the international level took part in the study. The maximal power and height of rise of the body mass center were measured at ACMJ, BCMJ and CMJ jumps performed on a dynamometric platform. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors and extensors were measured under static conditions on a special stand.Results: Only differences in relative muscle torque of flexors of the left and the right hip, flexors and extensors of the right knee and flexors and extensors of the trunk, the sum of relative muscle torque of the trunk and relative maximal power output measured during BCMJ were not significant between the female and male competitors, while statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in all the remaining variables of physical performances.Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that the male swimmers had much better performance than the female swimmers of comparable physical conditions, but when the results were calculated per body mass, gender differences in some the values were insignificant.
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