Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 4 | 66-69
Article title

Immediate cardiovascular effects of pranava relaxation in patients with hypertension and diabetes

Title variants
Languages of publication
Study aim: To assess immediate cardiovascular effect of pranava pranayama in the supine position in patients with concomitant hypertension and diabetes.Material and methods: Twenty-nine established patients having both hypertension and type 2 diabetes and attending regular therapy sessions were recruited and randomly allotted to pranava or control groups. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded before and after 10 minutes of "sham relaxation" in the control group and 10 minutes of pranava pranayama in the study group.Results: Significant (p<0.05) decreases of blood pressure and heart rate were observed. However, responses in the pranava and control groups were different: systolic pressure, pulse pressure, as well as mean pressure significantly decreased in the pranava group and this was not observed in the control group.Conclusions: Pranava pranayam in the supine posture produces an integrated relaxation response, clinically valuable in patients with hypertension and diabetes.
Physical description
1 - 1 - 2012
7 - 9 - 2012
  • Benson H, B. R. Marzetta, B. A. Rosner, H. M. Klemchuk (1974) Decreased blood-pressure in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who regularly elicited the relaxation response. Lancet, 303:289-291.
  • Bernardi L., P. Sleight, G. Bandinelli, S. Cencetti, L. Fattorini, J. Wdowczyc-Szulc, A. Lagi (2001) Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: comparative study. BMJ, 323:1446-1449.
  • Bhavanani A. B., Madanmohan, S. Zeena, I. V. Basavaraddi (2012) Immediate cardiovascular effects of pranava pranayama in hypertensive patients. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., (in press)
  • Bhavanani A. B., Madanmohan, S. Zeena (2011) Immediate effect of sukha pranayama on cardiovascular variables in patients of hypertension. Int. J. Yoga Ther., 21:73-76.
  • Frankel B. L., D. J. Patel, D. Horwitz, W. T. Friedewald, K. R. Gaarder (1978) Treatment of hypertension with biofeedback and relaxation techniques. Psychosom. Med., 40(4):276-293.[PubMed]
  • Goldstein I. B., D. Shapiro, C. Thananopavaran (1984) Home relaxation techniques for essential hypertension. Psychosom. Med., 46: 398-414.[PubMed]
  • Innes K. E., C. Bourguignon, A. G. Taylor (2005) Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: a systematic review. J. Am. Board Fam. Pract., 18:491-519.[Crossref]
  • Innes K. E., H. K. Vincent (2007) The influence of yoga-based programs on risk profiles in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 4(4):469-486.[WoS]
  • Jacob R. G., H. C. Kraemer, W. S. Agras (1977) Relaxation therapy in the treatment of hypertension. A review. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 34(12):1417-1427.[Crossref]
  • Khemka S. S., N. H. Rao, R. Nagarathna (2009) Immediate effects of two relaxation techniques on healthy volunteers. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 53:67-72.
  • Madanmohan, K. Udupa, A. B. Bhavanani, N. Krishnamurthy, G. K. Pal (2002) Modulation of cold pressor-induced stress by shavasan in normal adult volunteers. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 46: 307-312.
  • Madanmohan, K. Udupa, A. B. Bhavanani, C. C. Shatapathy, A. Sahai (2004) Modulation of cardiovascular response to exercise by yoga training. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 48: 461-465.
  • Pal G. K. (2008) Role of sympathovagal balance in achieving an effective homeostasis. Biomedicine, 28:67-68.
  • Prakash E. S., Madanmohan, K. R. Sethuraman, S. K. Narayan (2005) Cardiovascular autonomic regulation in subjects with normal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure and recentonset hypertension. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., 32:488-494.[Crossref]
  • Sakakibara M., S. Takeuchi, J. Hayano (1994) Effect of relaxation training on cardiac parasympathetic tone. Psychophysiology, 31(3): 223-228.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Satyapriya M., H. R. Nagendra, R. Nagarathna, V. Padmalatha (2009) Effect of integrated yoga on stress and heart rate variability in pregnant women. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet., 104:218-222.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
  • Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (2004) US Department of Health and Human Services. NIH Publication No. 04-5230.
  • Udupa K., Madanmohan, A. B. Bhavanani, P. Vijayalakshmi, N. Krishnamurthy (2003) Effect of pranayam training on cardiac function in normal young volunteers. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 47:27-33.
  • Vempati R. P., S. Telles (2002) Yoga based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity in subjects based on baseline levels. Psychol. Rep., 90(2):487-494.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Vijayalakshmi P., Madanmohan, A. B. Bhavanani, A. Patil, K. Babu (2004) Modulation of stress induced by isometric hand-grip test in hypertensive patients following yogic relaxation training. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 48:59-64.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.