Psychological gender of women taking up typically masculine sports activity
Languages of publication
Study aim: To examine which gender scheme is used by women who take up stereotypically masculine sports activity and to obtain an answer to the question of whether these subjects achieve higher results on the masculinity scale and lower results in femininity than women who practise other sports and women who do not take up any sports activity. Do women who practise masculine sports achieve a higher sports class and self-evaluate their results better if they identify with a masculine image?Material and methods: 90 women participated in the research: 30 sportswomen who practise masculine sports (judo, boxing, wrestling); 30 women training in gymnastics, swimming and basketball; and 30 women not taking up any sports activity. The research utilized the inventory of psychological gender assessment (IPP) by Kuczynska and a questionnaire prepared by the author.Results: The analysis of the results revealed that individuals taking up sports activity are to a large extent androgynic, while as far as masculine sports are concerned, a masculine gender scheme dominates. Women practising masculine sports gain significantly higher masculinity indices and lower femininity indices when compared to the remaining subjects. Simultaneously it was not proved whether individuals with a higher intensity of masculinity achieved a higher sports class or whether they self-evaluated their sports skills better.Conclusions: Women that take part in sport activities considered by society as masculine, identify themselves with masculine and androgynic gender schema.
1 - 1 - 2012
19 - 4 - 2012
- Anshel M. H., A. Porter, J. J. Quek (1998) Coping with acute stress in sport as a function of gender: An exploratory study. J. Sport Behav., 21:363-369.
- Bem S. L. (1974) The measurement of psychological androgyny. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 42:155-162.[PubMed]
- Burke K. L. (1986) Comparison of psychological androgyny within a sample of female college athletes who participate in sports traditionally appropriate and traditionally inappropriate for competition by women. Percept. Mot. Skills, 63:779-782.
- Cashmor E. (2002) Sport Psychology. The Key Concepts. Routledge, London.
- Fallon M. A., L. M. Jome (2007) An exploration of gender - role expectation and conflict among women rugby players. Psychol. Women Quart., 31: 311-321.[Crossref]
- Gierowski J., A. Porańska (2007) Dependencies between psychological gender, empathy, and interpersonal relations in juvenile girls and boys. Problems. Forensic. Sci, 72:379-403.
- Giuliano T. A., K. L. Turner, J. C. Lundguist, J. L. Knight (2007) Gender and the selection of public athletic role models. J. Sport Behav., 30:161-198.
- Hartman, D. (2003) What can we learn from sport if we take sport seriously as a racial force? Lessons from C. L. R. James's, Beyond a Bounduary. Ethnic. Racial Stud., 26(3):451-483.[Crossref]
- Koivula N. (2001) Perceived characteristics of sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine or masculine. J. Sport Behav., 24: 377-393.
- Krane V., P. Y. L. Choi, S. M. Baird, C. M. Aimar, K. J. Kauer (2004) Living the paradox: Female athletes negotiate femininity and muscularity. Sex Roles, 50:315-329.
- Lantz C. D., P. J. Schroeder (1999) Endorsement of masculine and feminine gender roles: Differences between participation in and identification with the athlete role. J. Sport Behav., 22:545-557.
- Mroczkowska H. (2007) Conformity with the pattern of maleness and cognitive - motivational determinants of aspirations for success in women. Biol. Sport, 2:275-284.
- O' Reilly J, S. K. Cahn (2007) Women and Sports in the United States. Northeastern University Press, New England.
- Ozkan T., T. Lajunen (2005) Masculinity, femininity, and the Bem Sex Role Inventory in Turkey. Sex Roles, 52:103-111[WoS]
- Pedersen D. M., D. M. Kono (1990) Perceived effects on femininity of the participation of women in sport. Percept. Mot. Skills, 71:783-792.
- Pratto F. (1996) Sexual politics: The gender gap in the bedroom, the cupboard, and the cabinet. In: D. M. Buss, N. Malamuth (eds.) Sex, Power and Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist Perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York: 179-230.
- Salminen S. (1990) Sex role and participation in traditionally inappropriate sports. Percept. Mot. Skills, 71:1216-1218.
- Soroka A, J. Bergier (2011) Sense of gender identity in women practicing football with consideration of the formation. Pol. J. Sport Tourism, 18:45-58.
- Terelak J., A. Górecki (2010) Relationship between personality traits and sporting success of judo athletes (in Polish). Kultura Fiz., 5-8:1-9.
- Terelak J., M. Siołkowska (2008) Physiological gender and aggressiveness in women practicing team sports (in Polish). Kultura Fiz., 7-8: 1-11.
Publication order reference