Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2010 | 2 | 102-105

Article title

Changes in the somatic and fitness variables in girls over two decades


Title variants

Languages of publication



Study aim: To assess the generation changes in somatic and motor variables in menstruating and non-menstruating girls from Eastern Poland.Material and methods: Two cohorts of girls aged 10 - 15 years from Eastern regions of Poland were studied in 1986 (n = 2554) and in 2006 (n = 5563). The age at menarche was determined in girls by probit method employing the status quo technique. The girls were subjected to the International Physical Fitness Test battery and the results were classified into two categories: those of girls who already menstruated (M) or who have not yet (N).Results: Mean menarcheal age significantly (p>0.001) decreased in 2006 compared with 1986 (12.77 and 13.41, respectively). This was accompanied by marked, significant increases in body height, significant changes in body mass and significant increases in the slimness. Physical fitness generally decreased, especially in girls aged over 12 years, but in the handgrip and in sit-ups significant improvements were noted in both groups of girls.Conclusions: The results seem to support the view that the secular advancement of somatic traits was associated with decreasing physical fitness.







Physical description


1 - 1 - 2010
20 - 12 - 2010


  • University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Biała Podlaska Branch, Poland
  • University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Biała Podlaska Branch, Poland


  • Bizhen W., Y. Jicheng (2005) Secular growth changes in body height and weight in children and adolescents in Shandong, China, between 1939 and 2000. Ann. Hum. Biol. 5:650-665.
  • Brundtland G. H., K. Liestol, L. Walloe (1980) Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo school children during the last 60 years. Ann. Hum. Biol. 7:307-322.
  • Cerneroud L., G. W. Lindgren (1991) Secular changes in height and weight of Stockholm school children born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 1963. Ann. Hum. Biol. 6:497-505.
  • Chodick G., M. Huerta, R. D. Balicer, N. Davidovitch, I. Grotto (2005) Secular trends in age at menarche, smoking, and oral contraceptive use among Israeli girls. Prev. Chronic Dis. 2:A12.
  • Cole J. T. (2000) Secular trends in growth. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59:317-324.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Eveleth P. B., J. M. Tanner (1990) Worldwide Variation in Human Growth. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Finney D. J. (1952) Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoid Response Curve. London, Cambridge University.
  • Floris G. (1982) Some anthropometric characteristics in menstruated and nonmenstruated girls. In: A. Hrdlicka (ed.) Proc. 2nd Anthropol. Congr., Universitas Carolina Pragensi, pp. 147-149.
  • Jovanović H., Ž. Prebeg, I. Stanić, G. Vuletić (2003) Impact of Waron growth patterns in school children in Croatia. Coll. Antropol. 2:573-579.
  • Kac G., M. A. S. C. Coelho, G. Velasquez-Melendez (2000) Secular trend in age at menarche for women born between 1920 and 1979 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ann. Hum. Biol. 4:423-428.
  • Larson L. A. (1966) An international research program for the standardization of physical fitness tests. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitn. 4:259-261.
  • Liestol K. (1982) Social conditions at menarcheal age: the importance of early years of life. Ann. Hum. Biol. 9:521-537.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Łaska-Mierzejewska T. (1993) Relationships between the body height/weight proportions (ponderal index) and the age at menarche. Biol. Sport 4:245-256.
  • Łaska-Mierzejewska T., E. Olszewska (2007) Anthropological assessment of changes in living conditions of the rural population in Poland in the period 1967-2001. Ann. Hum. Biol. 3:362-376.[WoS]
  • Marques-Vidal P, G. Madeleine, S. Romain, A. Gabriel, P. Bovet (2008) Secular trends in height and weight among children and adolescents of the Seychelles, 1956-2006. BMC Public Health 8:166-176.[WoS]
  • Mechelen, van W., W. van Lier, H. Hlobil, I. Crolla, H. C. G. Kemper (1991) Handleiding met Referentieschalen voor 12-tot on met 16-jarige Jongens on Meisjes in Nederland, Uitgeverij de Vrieseborch-Haarlem.
  • Mi Jung P., L. In-Sook, S. Eun-Kyung, J. Hyojee, Ch. Sung-Il (2006) The timing of sexual maturation and secular trends of menarcheal age in Korean adolescents. Korean J. Pediatr. 6:610-616.
  • Padez C. M. A. and Rocha (2003) Age at menarche in Coimbra (Portugal) school girls: a note on the secular changes. Ann. Hum. Biol. 5:622-632.[Crossref]
  • Przewęda R., J. Dobosz (2005) Growth and physical fitness of Polish youths. University of Physical Education Editions, Warsaw, p. 103.
  • Saczuk J., A. Wasiluk (2009) Secular trend in the physical fitness of rural girls from Eastern regions of Poland in respect of generation gaps of their urban peers. In: H. Popławska (ed.) Somatic Development, Physical Fitness and Health Status of Rural Children and Adolescents. University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Biała Podlaska Branch, pp. 277-288.
  • Silva P. (2005) Menarche and Lifestyle. WMJ. 104:7-24.
  • Stupnicki R. (2008) Analysis and Presentation of Questionnaire Data. Univ. of Physical Education Editions, Warsaw.
  • Terry M. B., J. S. Ferris, P. Tehranifar, Y. Wei, J. D. Flom (2009) Birth weight, postnatal growth, and age at menarche. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1:72-79.[PubMed]
  • Vercauteren M., C. Susanne (1985) The secular trend of height and menarche in Belgium: are there any signs of a future stop? Eur. J. Pediatr. 144:306-309.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Wilczewski A., A. Litwiniuk (2004) The tempo of changes in physical development of girls and boys from the middle-Eastern region of Poland in the years 1980-2000. Slovenská Antropológia 6:193-195.
  • Wilczewski A., M. Skład, B. Krawczyk, J. Saczuk, B. Majle (1996) Physical development and fitness of children from urban and rural areas as determined by eurofit test battery. Biol. Sport 2:113-126.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.