Teaching and coaching are two different occupational roles, and teachers who also coach have stressful work environments common to all educational settings, but each occupational role has specific stress and burnout problems. The responsibilities of physical education (PE) teachers and coaches are distinguishable from one another. These different roles and role conflicts may create stress among PE teachers who also coach. The history of physical education shows that there are contextual factors that promote PE teacher-coach role conflict. The aim of this paper is to analyse these contextual factors via using a literature review analysis and to provide suggestions about teacher-coach role conflict for school-based physical education in USA.