Comparison of Division II College Offensive and Defensive Football Players' Upper Body Strength Across One Repetition Maximum Test and The NFL-225 Test
Languages of publication
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of predicting actual one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press strength from the National Football League (NFL) 225-test in college football players. Forty-one Division II college football players participated in this study. Participants' upper body strength scores were expressed relative to body weight and results were compared across both tests. Mayhew et al. equation was used to predict 1RM. A repeated measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the groups. The present study found that the Mayhew equation overestimated relative upper body strength of college football players, while high degree of reliability was found between the actual 1RM and the NFL-225 tests [Wilks λ = 0.43, F (1,40) = 53.07, p = 0.000, Eta-squared = 0.57] and the correlation between these two tests was very high (r = 0.94, p<0.001). The present study also found that defensive players were stronger than offensive players when scores were expressed relative to body weight. The finding of this study indicates that the NFL-225 test's applicability may not be identical for all college players. This study elucidates some of the difficulties associated with predicting 1RM. However, while it is difficult to predict 1RM, testing using sub-maximal loads are far less time consuming especially when they involve a large number of athletes. The results of this study should facilitate coaches in choosing the most appropriate strength testing procedure for their programs.
1 - 1 - 2009
17 - 7 - 2009
- School of Sport Sciences and Technology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
- Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Texas A&M University-Commerce, TX, USA
- Department of Physical Education and Sport, SUNY Brockport State University of New York, NY, USA
- Department of Physical Education and Sport, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey
- Arthur M. NSCA tests and measurements survey results. Natl Str Con. Assoc J, 1982. 3:38.
- Atha J. Strengthening muscle. Exerc Sports Sci Rev, 1981. 9:1-73.
- Barker M., Wyatt T., Johnson R.L., Stone M.H., O'Bryant H.S., Poe C., Kent M. Performance factors, psychological factors, physical characteristics and football playing ability. J Strength Cond Res, 1993. 7:224-233.
- Berg K., Latin R.W., Baechle T. Physical and performance characteristics of NCAA Division I football players. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1990. 61:395-401.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Brown L.E., Weir JP. Asep procedures recommendation I: Accurate assessment of muscular strength and power. J. Exerc Physiol Online, 2001. 4:1-21.
- Brzycki M. Predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. JOPERD, 1993. 64:88-90.
- Chapman P.P., Whitehead J.R., Brinkert R.H. Prediction of 1 RM bench press from the 225 lbs reps-to-fatigue test in college football players [Abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1996. 28: S66.
- Chapman P.P., Whitehead J.R., Brinkert R.H. The 225-lbs reps-to-fatigue test as a submaximal estimate of 1-RM bench press performance in college football players. J Strength Cond Res, 1998. 12:258-261.
- Dohoney P.D., Chromiak J.A., Lemire D., Abadie B.R., Kovacs C. Prediction of one repetition maximum (1-RM) strength from a 4-6 RM and a 7-10 RM submaximal strength test in healthy young adult males. J Exerc Physiol. Online, 2002. 5:54-59.
- Everett H.P., Joyner A.B., McMillan J.L. The relationship among absolute endurance, relative endurance, and 1-RM tests for upper body strength and endurance in college males and females [Abstract]. J Strength Cond Res, 1995. 9:279.
- Fleck S.J., Kramer W.J. Designing resistance training programs (2nd ed.). Campaign, IL: 1997. pp.131-163.
- Fry A.C., Kraemer W.J., Weseman C.A., Conroy B.P., Gordon S.E., Hoffmann J.R., Maresh C.M. The effects of an off-season conditioning program on starters and non-starters in women's intercollegiate volleyball. J Appl Sport Sci Res, 1991. 5:174-181
- Kim P.S., Mayhew J.L., Peterson D.F. A modified YMCA bench press test as a predictor of one repetition maximum bench press strength. J Strength Cond Res, 2002. 16:440-445.
- Lander, J. Maximum based on reps. Natl. Str. Cond. Assoc. J, 1985. 6:60-61.
- Le Suer D., McCormick J., Mayhew J., Wasserstein R., Arnold M. The accuracy of prediction equations for estimating 1-RM performance in the bench press, squat, and deadlift. J Strength Cond Res, 1997. 11:211-213.
- Matthew J.W., Lynn B.P., Whitfield B.E., Craig E.B. Validation of submaximal prediction equations for the one repetition maximum bench test on a group of collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res, 2003. 17:221-227.
- Mayhew J., Ball T., Arnold M., Bowen J. Relative muscular endurance performance as a predictor of bench press strength in college men and women. J Appl Sport Sci. 1992. 6:200-206.
- Mayhew J.L., Ware J.S., Bemben M.G., Wilt B., Ward T.E., Farris B., Juraszek J., Slovak J.P. The NFL-225 test as a measure of bench press strength in college football players. J Strength Cond Res, 1999.13:130-134.
- Mayhew J.L., Ware J.S., Cannon K., Corbett S., Chapman P.P., Bemben M.G., Ward T.E., Farris B., Juraszek J., Slovak J.P. Validation of the NFL-225 test for predicting 1-RM bench press performance in college football players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2002. 42:304-308.
- Mayhew J.L., Jacques J.A., Ware J.S., Prinster J.L. Using lift repetitions to predict muscular strength in adolescent males. Nat Strength Cond Assoc J, 1993. 15:35-38.[Crossref]
- McGee K.J., Burkett L.N. The national football league combine: A reliable predictor of draft status? J. Strength Cond Res, 2003. 17:6-11.
- Niewiadomski W., Laskowska D., Gąsiorowska A., Cybulski G., Strasz A., Langfort3 J. Determination and Prediction of One Repetition Maximum (1RM): Safety Considerations. J Hum Kinetics, 2008. 19:109-120.
- Rose K., Ball T. A field test for predicting maximum bench press lift of college women. J Appl Sport Sci, 1992. 6:103-106.
- Sierer S.P., Battaglini C.L., Mihalik J.P., Shields E.W., Tomasini N.T. The National Football League Combine: Performance Differences Between Drafted and Nondrafted Players Entering the 2004 and 2005 Drafts. J Strength Cond Res, 2008. 22:6-12.[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
- Slovak J., Ward T.E., Blohm F., Chaloupka L., Morgan K., Windham, R. Comparison of the 225-test to one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1997. 29(5): S8.
- Stone M.H., Byrd R., Tew J., Wood M. Relationship between anaerobic power and Olympic weightlifting performance. J Sports Med. Phys Fitness, 1980. 20:99-102.
- Wagner L.L., Evans S.A., Weir J.P., Hpush T.J., Johnson G.O. The effect of grip width on bench press performance. Int J Biomech, 1992. 8:1-10.
- Weir J.P., Wagner L.L., Housh T.J. The effect of rest interval length on repeated maximal bench presses. J Strength Cond Res, 1994. 8:58-60.
- Wilson G.J. Strength and power in sport. In: Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport. J. Bloomfield, Ackland, T., and B. Elliot, eds. Melbsourne: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1994. pp.110-208.
- Zatsiorsky, V.M. Science and practice of strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1995.
Publication order reference