Sensation Seeking and Spatial Ability in Athletes: an Evolutionary Account
Languages of publication
The aim of this study was threefold: (a) to examine sex differences in sensation seeking and spatial abilities in a sample of athlete students, (b) to explore whether measures of sensation seeking and spatial ability can be used to distinguish between athletes engaging in sports of different levels of risk, and (c) to explore the relationship between sensation seeking and spatial abilities in a sample of athlete students. A total of 201 students athletes engaged in sports of different levels of risk completed the Spatial relations test, Mental rotation test, and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale-V. Men scored higher than women in both measures of spatial abilities and on DIS, while women scored higher than men on ES. High-risk group had higher SSS and TAS scores than low- and medium- risk groups, and low-risk group had lower DIS scores than medium- and high-risk group, but there were no differences in spatial ability among athletes engaged in sports of different levels of risk. Spatial ability correlated with sensation seeking measures in men only. The results are discussed in terms of possible common biological background of these two sex-dimorphic traits.
1 - 1 - 2009
17 - 7 - 2009
- Aluja A., Garcia L.F. Sensation seeking, sexual curiosity and testosterone in inmates. Neuropsychobiology, 2005. 51:28-33.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Austin E.J., Manning J.T., McInroy K., Mathews, E. A preliminary investigation of the associations between personality, cognitive ability and digit ratio. Pers Indiv Differ, 2002. 33:1115-1124.[Crossref]
- Ball I.L., Farnill D., Wangeman J.F. Sex and age differences in sensation seeking: some national comparisons. Brit J Psychol, 1984. 75: 257-265.[Crossref]
- Bennett G. K., Seashore H. G., Wesman, A.G. Differential Aptitude Tests. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1947.
- Butkovic A., Bratko D. Generation and sex differences in sensation seeking: Results of the family study. Percept Motor Skill, 2003. 97: 965-970.[Crossref]
- Chirivella E.C., Martinez L.M. The sensation of risk and motivational tendencies in sports: An empirical study. Pers Indiv Differ, 1994.16: 777-786.[Crossref]
- Christiansen, K. Sex hormone-related variations of cognitive performance in Kung San hunter-gatherers of Namibia. Neuropsychobiology, 1993. 27: 97-107.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Cohen-Bendahan C.C.C., Buitelaar J.K., van Goozen S.H.M., Orlebeke J.F., Cohen-Kettenis P.T. Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls. Horm Behav, 2005. 47: 230-237.[Crossref]
- Collaer M. L., Hines M. Human behavioral sex differences: A role for gonadal hormones during early development? Psychol Bull, 1995. 118: 55-107.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Falter C. M, Arroyo M., Davis G. J. Testosterone: Activation or organization of spatial cognition? Biol Psychol, 2006. 73: 132-140.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Faurie C., Pontier D., Raymond M. Student athletes claim to have more sexual partners than other students. Evol Hum Behav, 2004. 25: 1-8.[Crossref]
- Fellmann, N. Hormonal and plasma volume alterations following endurance exercise. Sports Med, 1992. 13: 37-49.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Fink B., Neave N., Laughton K., Manning J.T. Second to fourth digit ratio and sensation seeking. Pers Indiv Differ, 2006. 41: 1253-1262.[Crossref]
- Geschwind N., Galaburda, A. Cerebral lateralization: Biological mechanisms, associations, and pathology. I. A hypothesis and a program for research. Arch Neurol, 1985. 42: 428-459.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Gomà-i-Freixanet M. Personality profile of subjects engaged in high physical risk sports. Pers Indiv Differ, 1991. 12: 1087-1093.
- Gomà-i-Freixanet M. Sensation seeking and participation in physical risk sports. In: R.M. Stelmack (Ed.), On the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman (pp. 185-199). Elsevier Science/Pergamon Press, 2004.
- Gouchie C., Kimura D. The relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive ability patterns. Psychoneuroendocrino, 1991. 16: 323-334.[Crossref]
- Hurt R. E., Brous C. W. Spatial visualization: Athletic skills and sex differences. Percept Motor Skill, 1986. 63: 163-168.
- Jack S.J., Ronan K.R. Sensation seeking among high- and low-risk sports participants. Pers Indiv Differ, 1998. 25: 1063-1083.[Crossref]
- Janowsky J.S, Oviatt S.K., Orwoll E.S. Testosterone influences spatial cognition in older men. Behav Neurosci, 1994. 108: 325-332.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Karadi K., Szabo I., Szepesi T., Kallai J., Kovacs B. Sex differences on the hand mental rotation task for 9-yr-old children and young adults. Percept Motor Skill, 1999. 89: 969-872.
- Kempel P., Gohlke B., Klempau J., Zinsberger P., Reuter M., Hennig J. Second-to-fourth digit length, testosterone and spatial ability. Intelligence, 2005. 33: 215-230.[Crossref]
- Kimura, D. Sex and cognition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000.
- Kimura D., Hampson, E. Cognitive pattern in men and women is influenced by fluctuations in sex hormones. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 1994. 3: 57-61.[Crossref]
- Linn M.C., Petersen A. C. Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: a meta-analysis. Child Dev, 1985. 56: 1479-1498.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Lord T.R., Garrison J. Comparing spatial abilities of collegiate athletes in different sports. Percept Motor Skill, 1998. 86: 1016-1018.[Crossref]
- Lord T., Leonard B. Comparing scores on spatial-perception tests for intercollegiate athletes and nonathletes. Percept Motor Skill, 1997. 84: 299-306.[Crossref]
- Macoby E.E., Jacklin C. N. The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974.
- Manning J.T., Taylor R.P. 2nd to 4th digit ratio and male ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans. Evol Hum Behav, 2001. 22 61-69.
- Ozel S., Larue J., Molinaro C. Relation between sport activity and mental rotation: Comparison of three groups of subjects. Percept Motor Skill, 2002. 95: 1141-1154.[Crossref]
- Resnick S.M, Gottesman I.I, McGue M. Sensation seeking in opposite-sex twins: An effect of prenatal hormones? Behav Genet, 1993. 23: 323-329.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Ridgeway D., Russell J.A. Reliability and validity of the Sensation Seeking Scale: psychometric problems in Form V. J Consult Clin Psych, 1980. 48: 662-664.[Crossref]
- Sanders G., Sjodin M., de Chastelaine M. On the elusive nature of sex differences in cognition: hormonal influences contributing to within-sex variation. Arch Sex Behav, 2002. 31: 145-152.[Crossref]
- Sanders G., Bereczkei T., Csatho A., Manning J. The ratio of 2nd to 4th finger predicts spatial ability in men but not women. Cortex, 2005. 41: 789-795.
- Schroth M.L. A comparison of sensation seeking among different groups of athletes and nonathletes. Pers Indiv Differ, 1995. 18: 219-222.[Crossref]
- Shute V.J, Pellegrino J.W., Hubert L., Reynolds R.W. The relationship between androgen levels and human spatial abilities. Bull Psychonom Soc, 1983. 21: 465-468.[Crossref]
- Silverman I., Kastuk D., Choi J., Philips K. Testosterone levels and spatial ability in men. Psychoneuroendocrino, 1999. 24: 813-822.[Crossref]
- Simpson J.A., Gangestad S.W., Christensen P.N., Leck K. Fluctuating asymmetry, sociosexuality, and intrasexual competitive tactics. J Pers Soc Psychol, 1999. 76: 159-172.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Slanger E., Rudestam K.E. Motivation and Disinhibition in High Risk Sports: Sensation Seeking and Self-Efficacy. J Res Pers, 1997. 31: 355-374.[Crossref]
- Tooby J., Cosmides L.C. The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- Vandenberg S.G., Kuse A.R. Mental rotations, a group test of three-dimensional spatial visualization. Percept Motor Skill, 1978. 47: 599-604.[Crossref]
- Voyer D., Voyer S., Bryden M.P. Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: a meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. Psychol Bull, 1995. 117: 250-270.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Wagner A.M., Houlihan D.D. Sensation seeking and trait anxiety in hang-glider pilots and golfers. Pers Indiv Differ, 1994.16: 975-977.[Crossref]
- Williams C.L., Meck W.H. The organizational effects of gonadal steroids on sexually dimorphic spatial ability. Psychoneuroendocrino, 1991. 16: 155-176.[Crossref]
- Zarevski P., Marusic I., Zolotic S., Bunjevac T., Vukosav Z. Contribution of Arnett's inventory of sensation seeking and Zuckerman's sensation seeking scale to the differentiation of athletes engaged in high and low risk sports. Pers Indiv Differ, 1998. 25: 763-768.[Crossref]
- Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and sports. Pers Indiv Differ, 1983. 4: 285-293.[Crossref]
- Zuckerman M. Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
- Zuckerman M., Eysenck S.B.G., Eysenck H.J. Sensation seeking in England and America: cross-cultural, age and sex comparisons. J Consult Clin Psych, 1978. 46: 139-149.[Crossref]
Publication order reference