Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 35 | 1 | 59-68

Article title

The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial


Title variants

Languages of publication



The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onsetof muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-sixvolunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to theresistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistanceexercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10x5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40%(women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris andmaximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutivedays. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at thecentral muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group(p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobicwarm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distalmuscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force.









Physical description


1 - 12 - 2012
26 - 01 - 2013


  • Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
  • Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
  • Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
  • Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.


  • Alangari AS, Al-Hazzaa HM. Normal isometric and isokinetic peak torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in young adult Saudi males. Neurosciences, 2004; 9: 165-170
  • Armstrong RB, Ogilvie RW, Schwane JA. Eccentric exercise induced injury to rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol, 1983; 54: 80-93
  • Baker SJ, Kelly NM, Eston RG. Pressure pain tolerance at different sites on the quadriceps femoris prior to and following eccentric exercise. Eur J Pain, 1997; 1: 229-233
  • Bijur PE, Silver W, Gallagher EJ. Reliability of the visual analog scale for measurement of acute pain. Acad Emerg Med, 2001; 8: 1153-1157[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Bishop D. Warm up II - Performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Med, 2003; 33: 483-498[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Cheung K, Hume PA, Maxwell L. Delayed onset muscle soreness: Treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Med, 2003; 33: 145-164[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Ettema G, Loras HW. Efficiency in cycling: A review. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2009; 106: 1-14
  • Evans RK, Knight KL, Draper DO, Parcell AC. Effects of warm-up before eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2002; 34: 1892-1899[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Fradkin AJ, Gabbe BJ, Cameron PA. Does warming up prevent injury in sport?: The evidence from randomised controlled trials? J Sci Med Sport, 2006; 9: 214-220[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Gulick DT, Kimura IF, Sitler M, Paolone A, Kelly JD. Various treatment techniques on signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. J Athl Training, 1996; 31: 145-152
  • Hedayatpour N, Falla D, Arendt-Nielsen L, Farina D. Sensory and electromyographic mapping during delayed-onset muscle soreness. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2008; 40: 326-334[WoS]
  • Ingham SA, van Someren KA, Howatson G. Effect of a concentric warm-up exercise on eccentrically induced soreness and loss of function of the elbow flexor muscles. J Sports Sci, 2010; 28: 1377-1382[WoS]
  • Jones DH, Kilgour RD, Comtoist AS. Test-retest reliability of pressure pain threshold measurements of the upper limb and torso in young healthy women. J Pain, 2007; 8: 650-656[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • Kennedy MD, Haykowsky MJ, Boliek CA, Esch BTA, Scott JM, Warburton DER. Regional muscle oxygenation differences in vastus lateralis during different modes of incremental exercise. Dyn Med, 2006; 5: 1-8
  • Kosek E, Hansson P. Perceptual integration of intramuscular electrical stimulation in the focal and the referred pain area in healthy humans. Pain, 2003; 105: 125-131
  • Law RYW, Herbert RD. Warm-up reduces delayed-onset muscle soreness but cool-down does not: A randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother, 2007; 53: 91-95
  • MacIntyre DL, Reid WD, Lyster DM, Szasz IJ, McKenzie DC. Presence of WBC, decreased strength, and delayed soreness in muscle after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol, 1996; 80: 1006-1013
  • Noonan TJ, Best TM, Seaber AV, Garrett WE, Andrish JT. Thermal effects on skeletal muscle tensile behavior. Am J Sports Med, 1993; 21: 517-522
  • Paulsen G, Crameri R, Benestad HB, Fjeld JG, Morkrid L, Hallen J, Raastad T. Time course of leukocyte accumulation in human muscle after eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2010; 42: 75-85
  • Prasartwuth O, Taylor JL, Gandevia SC. Maximal force, voluntary activation and muscle soreness after eccentric damage to human elbow flexor muscles. J Physiol (Lond), 2005; 567: 337-348
  • Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: Mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol (Lond), 2001; 537: 333-345
  • Safran MR, Seaber AV, Garrett WE. Warm-up and muscular injury prevention. An update. Sports Med, 1989; 8: 239-249[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Saltin B, Gagge AP, Stolwijk JA. Muscle temperature during submaximal exercise in man. J Appl Physiol, 1968; 25: 679-688[PubMed]
  • Sjøgaard G. Capillary supply and cross-sectional area of slow and fast twitch muscle-fibers in man. Histochemistry, 1982; 76: 547-555[Crossref]
  • Sole G, Hamren J, Milosavljevic S, Nicholson H, Sullivan SJ. Test-retest reliability of isokinetic knee extension and flexion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2007; 88: 626-631[WoS]
  • Takahashi J, Ishihara K, Aoki J. Effect of aqua exercise on recovery of lower limb muscles after downhill running. J Sports Sci, 2006; 24: 835-842[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Takahashi J, Koga H, Uchida T, Ohnishi T, Takaoka I. The effect of active rest after the soccer game on muscular strength and flexibility. J Health Spo Sci, 2000; 4: 24-31
  • Takekura H, Fujinami N, Nishizawa T, Ogasawara H, Kasuga N. Eccentric exercise-induced morphological changes in the membrane systems involved in excitation-contraction coupling in rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol (Lond), 2001; 533: 571-583
  • Takizawa K, Soma T, Nosaka K, Ishikawa T, Ishii K. Effect of warm-up exercise on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Eur J Sport Sci, 2011; 1-7
  • Thorstensson A, Grimby G, Karlsson J. Force-velocity relations and fiber composition in human knee extensor muscles. J Appl Physiol, 1976; 40: 12-16[PubMed]
  • Travnik L, Pernus F, Erzen I. Histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles. J Anat, 1995; 187: 403-411
  • Warren GL, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB. Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Med, 1999; 27: 43-59

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.