Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 35 | 1 | 15-25

Article title

The Test-Retest Reliability of Anatomical Co-Ordinate Axes Definition for the Quantification of Lower Extremity Kinematics During Running


Title variants

Languages of publication



Three-dimensional (3-D) kinematic analyses are used widely in both sport and clinical examinations.However, this procedure depends on reliable palpation of anatomical landmarks and mal-positioning of markers betweensessions may result in improperly defined segment co-ordinate system axes which will produce in-consistent jointrotations. This had led some to question the efficacy of this technique. The aim of the current investigation was to assessthe reliability of the anatomical frame definition when quantifying 3-D kinematics of the lower extremities duringrunning. Ten participants completed five successful running trials at 4.0 m·s-1 ± 5%. 3-D angular joint kinematicsparameters from the hip, knee and ankle were collected using an eight camera motion analysis system. Two staticcalibration trials were captured. The first (test) was conducted prior to the running trials following which anatomicallandmarks were removed. The second was obtained following completion of the running trials where anatomicallandmarks were re-positioned (retest). Paired samples t-tests were used to compare 3-D kinematic parameters quantifiedusing the two static trials, and intraclass correlations were employed to examine the similarities between the sagittal,coronal and transverse plane waveforms. The results indicate that no significant (p>0.05) differences were foundbetween test and retest 3-D kinematic parameters and strong (R2≥0.87) correlations were observed between test andretest waveforms. Based on the results obtained from this investigation, it appears that the anatomical co-ordinate axesof the lower extremities can be defined reliably thus confirming the efficacy of studies using this technique.









Physical description


1 - 12 - 2012
26 - 01 - 2013


  • Division of Sport, Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University of Central Lancashire.
  • School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire.
  • School of Life Sciences, University of Hertfordshire.
  • Faculty of Health, University of Staffordshire.
  • Division of Sport, Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University of Central Lancashire.
  • Division of Sport, Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University of Central Lancashire.
  • Division of Sport, Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University of Central Lancashire.


  • Bell AL, Brand RA, Pedersen DR. Prediction of hip joint centre location from external landmarks. Hum Mov Sci, 1989; 8: 3-16[Crossref]
  • Besier TF, Sturnieks DL, Alderson JA, Lloyd DG. Repeatability of gait data using a functional hip joint centre and a mean helical knee axis. J Biomech, 2003; 36: 1159-68[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Cappozzo A, Catani F, Leardini A, Benedeti MG, Della CU. Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: Anatomical frame definition and determination. Clin Biomech, 1995; 10: 171-178[Crossref]
  • Cappozzo A. Gait analysis methodology. Hum Mov Sci, 1984; 3: 25-54
  • Cappozzo A, Cappello A, Croce U, Pensalfini F. Surface-marker cluster design criteria for 3-D bone movement reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Biomed Eng, 1997; 44: 1165-1174
  • Corazza S, Mundermann L, Chaudhari AM, Demattio T, Cobelli C, Andriacchi TP. A Markerless Motion Capture System to Study Musculoskeletal Biomechanics: Visual Hull and Simulated Annealing Approach, Ann Biomed Eng, 2006; 34: 1019-1029[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Della Croce U, Cappozzo A, Kerrigan DC. Pelvis and lower limb anatomical landmark calibration precision and its propagation to bone geometry and joint angles. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 1999; 37: 155-161
  • Della Croce U, Leardini A, Chiari L, Cappozzo A. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry-part 4: assessment of anatomical landmark misplacement and its effects on joint kinematics. Gait & Posture, 2005; 21: 226-237[Crossref]
  • Ferber R, McClay Davis I, Williams D, Laughton C. A comparison of within- and between-day reliability of discrete 3D lower extremity variables in runners. J Orthop Res, 2002; 20: 1139-1145[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Gorton GE, Hebert DA, Gannotti ME. Assessment of the kinematic variability among 12 motion analysis laboratories, Gait & Posture, 2009; 29: 398-402[WoS]
  • Kadaba MP, Ramakrishnan HK, Wootten ME, Gainey J, Gorton G, Cochran GV. Repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data in normal adult gait. J Orthop Res, 1989; 7: 849-60[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Leo T. AIM Project A: CAMARC-II (computer aided movement analysis in a rehabilitation context-II). Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2002; 45: 11-13
  • McGinley JL, Baker R, Wolfe R, Morris ME. The reliability of three-dimensional kinematic gait measurements: a systematic review. Gait & Posture, 2009; 29: 360-369[WoS][Crossref]
  • Pohl MB, Chandra L, Ferber R. Can the reliability of three-dimensional running kinematics be improved using functional joint methodology? Gait & Posture, 2010; 32: 559-563[Crossref][WoS]
  • Richards J, Thewlis D. Anatomical models and markers sets. In Richards J Ed. Biomechanics in clinic and research, Churchill Livingston Elseivier, 117-128; 2008
  • Rothstein JM, Echternach JL. Primer on measurement: an introductory guide to measurement issues. American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), 221-225; 1993
  • Sinclair J, Taylor PJ, Edmundson CJ, Brooks D, Hobbs SJ. Influence of the helical and six available cardan sequences on 3-D ankle joint kinematic parameters. Sports Biomech, 2012; 11: 430-437[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
  • Sinclair J, Hobbs SJ, Edmundson CJ, Brooks D. Evaluation of kinematic methods of identifying foot strike and toe-off during running, Int J Sp Sci and Eng, 2011; 5: 188-192
  • Stacoff A, Reinschmidt C, Stüssi E. The movement of the heel within a running shoe. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1992; 24: 695-701
  • Thewlis D, Richards J, Bower J. Discrepancies in Knee Joint Moments Using Common Anatomical Frames Defined by Different Palpable Landmarks, J App Biomech, 2008; 24: 185-190

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.