Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 34 | 1 | 119-127

Article title

Relationship between group cohesion and anxiety in soccer


Title variants

Languages of publication



Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced byseveral individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitiveanxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) andcompetitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence.Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, fromPortugal’s championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group EnvironmentQuestionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State AnxietyInventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidencethan male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-Te ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relatesnegatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the malegender.










Physical description


1 - 10 - 2012
23 - 10 - 2012


  • Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior - Polytechnic Institute of Santarém.Research Center in Sports, Health Sciences and Human Development - CIDESD.
  • Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior - Polytechnic Institute of Santarém.Research Center in Sports, Health Sciences and Human Development - CIDESD.
  • Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior - Polytechnic Institute of Santarém.Research Center in Sports, Health Sciences and Human Development - CIDESD.


  • Aoyagi MW, Cox RH, McGuire RT. Organizational citizenship behavior in sport: Relationships with leadership, team cohesion, and athlete satisfaction. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2008; 20(1): 25-41[Crossref]
  • Baumeister RF, Leary MR. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments s a fundamental human motivation. Psychol Bull, 1995; 3(117): 497-529
  • Beauchamp MR, Bray SR, Eys MA, Carron AV. The effect of role ambiguity on competitive state anxiety. J Sport Exercise Psy, 2003; 25: 77-92
  • Blanchard C, Poon P, Rodgers W, Pinel B. Group environment questionnaire and its applicability in an exercise setting. Small Gr Res, 2000; 31(4): 21-224
  • Bull SJ. Sport Psychology: A Self-help Guide. Ramsbury: Marlborough: Crowood; 2000
  • Carron AV, Brawley L, Widmeyer W. The Measurement of Cohesiveness in Sport Groups. In J Duda, ed, Advances in Sport and Exercises Psychology Measurement. Morgantown: WV: Fitness Information Technology Inc, 213-226; 1998
  • Carron AV, Bray SR, Eys MA. Team cohesion and team success in sport. J Sport Sci, 2002; 20(2): 119-126[Crossref]
  • Carron AV, Widmeyer N, Brawley L. The development of an instrument to assess cohesion in sport teams: The group environment questionnaire. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1985; 7: 244-266
  • Carron AV. Cohesiveness in sport groups: Interpretations and considerations. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1982; 4:123-138
  • Cartoni AC, Minganti C, Zelli A. Gender, age and professional-level differences in the psychological correlates of fear of injury in Italian gymnast. Journal of Sport Behavior, 2005; 28: 3-17
  • Cogan KD, Petrie TA. Sport consultation: An evaluation of a season-long intervention with female collegiate gymnasts. Sport Psychol, 1995; 9: 282-286
  • Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Second ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988
  • Cota AA, Evans, CR, Dion KL, Kilik L, Longman RS. The Structure of group cohesion. Pers Soc Psychol B, 1995; 21(6): 572-580[Crossref]
  • Courneya KS. Cohesion correlates with affect in structured exercise classes. Percept Motor Skill, 1995; 81: 1021-1022[Crossref]
  • Craft LL, Magyar TM, Becker BJ, Feltz DL. The relation between the competitive state anxiety inventory-II and sport performance: A meta-analysis. J Sport Exercise Psy, 2003; 25: 44-65
  • Cruz JF, Antunes J. Adaptation and psychometric Characteristics of the “group Environment scale”and the “satisfaction scale”. In JF Cruz, AR Gomes, ed, Sport and Exercise Psychology: Theory, research and intervention. Braga: Universidade do Minho, 339-348; 1997
  • Eys MA, Hardy J, Carron AV, Beauchamp MR. The relationship between task cohesion and competitive state anxiety. J Sport Exercise Psy, 2003; 25: 66-76
  • Jones G, Cale A. Precompetition temporal patterning of anxiety and self-confidence in males and females. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1989; 12: 183-195
  • Jones G, Hanton S, Swain A. Intensity and interpretation of anxiety symptoms in elite and non-elite performers. Pers Indiv Differ, 1994; 117: 657-663[Crossref]
  • Jones G, Hanton S. Pre-competitive feeling states and directional anxiety interpretations. J Sport Sci, 2001; 19: 385-395[Crossref]
  • Jones G, Swain A, Cale A. Gender differences in pre competition temporal patterning and antecedents of anxiety and self confidence. J Sport Exercise Psy, 1991; 13: 1-15
  • Jones G, Swain A, Hardy L. Intensity and frequency dimensions of competitive state anxiety and relationships with performance. J Sport Sci, 1993; 11(6): 525-532[Crossref]
  • Jones G, Swain A. Intensity and direction dimensions of competitive anxiety and relationships with competitiveness. Percept Motor Skill, 1992; 74: 467- 472[Crossref]
  • Krane V, Williams JM. Cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and confidence in track and field athletes: the impact of gender, competitive level and characteristics. Int J Sport Psychol, 1994; 25: 203-217
  • Martens R, Vealey R, Burton, D. Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publications; 1990
  • Martin KA, Hall CR. Situational and intrapersonal moderators of sport competition state anxiety. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1997; 20(4): 435-446
  • Moritz SE, Feltz DL, Fahrbach KR, Mack DE. The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review. Res Q Exercise Sport, 2000; 71: 280-294[Crossref]
  • Munroe K, Estabrooks P, Dennis P, Carron AV. A Phenomenological Analysis of Group Norms in Sport Teams. Sport Psychol, 1999; 13: 171-182
  • Prapavessis H, Carron AV. The effect of group cohesion on competitive state anxiety. J Sport Exercise Psy, 1996; 18: 64-74
  • Radochoński M, Cynarski WJ, Perenc L, Siorek-Maślanka L. Competitive Anxiety and Coping Strategies in Young Martial Arts and Track and Field Athletes. Jounal of Human Kinetics, 2011; 27: 180-189
  • Raglin JS, Hanin YL. Competitive anxiety. In YL Hanin, ed. Emotions in sport Champaign IL: Human Kinetics, 93-111; 2000
  • Spink KS, Nickel D, Wilson K, Odnokon P. Satisfaction in Elite Ice Hockey Players Using a Multilevel Approach to Examine the Relationship between Task Cohesion and Team Task Satisfaction in Elite Ice Hockey Players. Small Gr Res, 2005; 36(5): 539-554[Crossref]
  • Terry PC, Carron AV, Pink, MJ, Lane AM, Jones G, Hall M. Perceptions of group cohesion and mood in sport teams. Group Dynamics, 2000; 4: 234-243
  • Terry PC, Youngs EL. Discriminant effectiveness of psychological state measures in predicting selection during field hockey trials. Percept Motor Skill, 1996; 82: 371-377[Crossref]
  • Wark KA, Wittig AF. Sex role and sport competition anxiety. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1979; 1: 248-250
  • Weinberg R, Gould D. Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1999
  • ---

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.