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2012 | 34 | 1 | 15-20

Article title

A biomechanical model correlating shoulder kinetics to pain in young baseball pitchers


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Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulderanterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, thepurpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers.Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and establishedcalculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical historyquestionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationshipsbetween both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Althoughpeak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to thedevelopment of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% ofshoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reportedshoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appearsthat those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to reportexperiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force.











Physical description


1 - 10 - 2012
23 - 10 - 2012


  • Department of Human Performance, Dance, and Recreation, New Mexico State University; Las Cruces, New Mexico
  • Department of Health Sciences, Kinesiology, Recreation, and Dance, University of Arkansas; Fayetteville, Arkansas
  • The Agility Center, Bentonville, Arkansas


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