PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 33 | 173-185
Article title

The Effect of Goal Setting Difficulty on Serving Success in Table Tennis and the Mediating Mechanism of Self-regulation

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Goal setting difficulty has been shown to contribute to athletic performance (Burton et al., 2000). However, the potential mediating mechanism of goal difficulty on performance is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to verify the effect of goal setting difficulty on serving success in table tennis, and determine if self-regulation is the mediating variable. The current study used serving success within a one minute period as the task, and the "Athlete's Self-regulation in Motor Learning" as the measurement tool. The experiment was designed as a 3 (serving frequency: 20/min, 23/min, and 26/min) x 2 (serving placement: left "small triangle", and right "small triangle") model. Participants (N = 60) in the current study were students from a physical education school. These participants were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. After the intervention, differences in self-regulation (p < 0.001) and serving success (p < 0.05) between the experimental and control groups were significant. For the experimental groups, there was a significant difference in self-regulation (p < 0.001) and serving success (p < 0.05) before and after the experiment. Serving frequency had a main effect on self-regulation (F (5, 24) = 12.398, p < 0.01) and serving success (F (5, 24) = 37.601, p < 0.001). Moderately difficult goal setting contributed to athletic performance. Regression analysis using bootstrapping methods revealed that self-regulation partially mediated the relationship between the two.
Publisher

Year
Volume
33
Pages
173-185
Physical description
Dates
published
1 - 6 - 2012
online
4 - 7 - 2012
Contributors
author
  • Department of Health & Exercise Science, Tianjin University of Sport
author
  • Office of Scientific Research, Shanghai University of Sport
author
  • School of Sports & Health, East China Normal University
author
  • Department of Sport Sciences, West Virginia University
References
  • Ames C. Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. J Educ Psychol, 1992; 84: 261-271[Crossref]
  • Atkinson JW, Reitman WR. Performance as a function of motive strength and expectancy of goal-attainment. J Abnorm Soc Psychol, 1956; 53: 361-366[Crossref]
  • Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian J Soc Psychol, 1999; 2: 21-41[Crossref]
  • Bandura A, Wood RE. Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Acad Manag Rev, 1989; 14: 361-384
  • Barry B, Stewart GL. Composition, processes, and performance in self-managed groups: The role of personality. J Appl Psychol, 1997; 82: 62-78[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Boutelle KN, Kirschenbaum DS. Further support for consistent self-monitoring as a vital component of successful weight control. Obes Res, 1998; 6: 219-224[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Bueno J, Weinberg RS, Fernández-Castro J, Capdevila L. Emotional and motivational mechanisms mediating the influence of goal setting on endurance athletes' performance. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2008; 9: 786-799[Crossref]
  • Burton D, Naylor N, Holliday B. Goal setting in sport: Investigating the goal effectiveness paradox. New York: John Wiely & Sons, Inc, 2000
  • Burton D, Naylor S. The Jekyll/Hyde nature of goals: Revisiting and updating goal-setting in sport. In Horn T (2nd Ed.), Advances in Sport Psychology, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 459-499; 2002
  • Caprara GV, Cervone D. Personality: Determinants, dynamics, and potentials. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2000
  • Conroy DE, Willow JP, Metzler JN. Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: The Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2002; 14: 76-90[Crossref]
  • Cox RH. Sport psychology: Concepts and applications (3rd Ed.). Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark; 1994
  • Devereux JM, Hastings RP, Noone SJ, Firth A, Totsika V. Social support and coping as mediators or moderators of the impact of work stressors on burnout in intellectual disability support staff. Res Dev Disabil, 2008; 30: 367-377[PubMed]
  • Dweck CS. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press; 1999
  • Fiske ST, Taylor SE. Social cognition (2nd Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill; 1991
  • Ford DH. Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspective on behavior and personality. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1987
  • Gainforth CJ, Barg AE, Latimer KL, et al. An investigation of the theoretical content of physical activity brochures. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2011; 12: 615-620[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Gould D. Goal setting for peak performance. In Williams JM (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (2nd Ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 158-169; 1993
  • Hall HK, Weinberg RS. Effects of goal specificity, goal difficulty, and information feedback on endurance performance. J Sport Psychol, 1987; 9: 43-54
  • Jackson SA, Roberts GC. Positive performance states of athletes: Toward a conceptual understanding of peak performance. Sport Psychol, 1992; 6: 156-171
  • Ji L, Ni G, Sun XY. Long-term goal setting on shooting accuracy, effort level, and state anxiety. China Psychol Sci, 1998; 21: 140-145
  • Jia Y, Dong XJ. Goal setting in physical teaching. Shandong Sport Sci Tech, 2006; 28: 78-79
  • Kane TD, Marks MA, Zaccaro SJ, Blair V. Self-Efficacy, personal goals, and wrestlers' self-regulation. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1996; 18: 36-48
  • Karoly P. Goal systems and health outcomes across the life span: A proposal. In Schroeder HE (Ed.), New directions in health psychology assessment. New York: Hemisphere, 65-93; 1991
  • Karoly P. Goal systems: An organizing framework for clinical assessment and treatment planning. Psychol Assess, 1993b; 5: 273-280
  • Karoly P. A goal systems-self-regulatory perspective on personality, psychopathology, and change. Rev Gen Psychol, 1999; 3: 264-291[Crossref]
  • Karoly P. Self-monitoring. In Hersen M & Rosqvist J (eds), Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 521-525; 2005
  • Karoly P, Ruehlman LS. Goal cognition and its clinical implications: Development and preliminary validation of four motivational assessment instruments. Assess, 1995; 2: 113-129
  • Karoly P, Ruehlman LS. Motivational implications of pain: Chronicity, psychological distress, and work goal construal in a national sample of adults. Health Psychol, 1996; 15: 383-390[Crossref]
  • Kingston K, Wilson K. The application of goal setting in sport. In Mellalieu S & Hanton S (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology: A review. New York: Routledge, 75-123; 2009
  • Kolovelonis A, Goudas M, Dermitzaki I. The effect of different goals and self-recording on self-regulation of learning a motor skill in a physical education setting. Learn Instruct, 2011; 21: 355-364
  • Kyllo LB, Landers DM. Goal-setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1995; 17: 117-137
  • Latham GP, Locke EA. Self-regulation through goal setting. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process, 1991; 50: 212-247[Crossref]
  • Lazarus RS. Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. London: Free Association Books; 1999
  • Lee FK, Sheldon KM, Turban DB. Personality and the goal-striving process: The influence of achievement goal patterns, goal level, and mental focus on performance and enjoyment. J Appl Psychol, 2003; 88: 256-265[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Lewthwaite R. Threat perception in competitive trait anxiety: The endangerment of important goals. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1990; 12: 280-300
  • Li JC, Liu SH, Lu WP, Yin M. Effect of assigned goals on athlete's mental state and performance in volleyball. J Beijing Teachers College Phys Educ, 1996; 8: 49-53
  • Little BR. Personal projects: A rationale and method for investigation. Environ Behav, 1983; 15: 273-309[Crossref]
  • Little BR. Personality and motivation: Personal action and the cognitive evolution. In Pervin LA & John OP, Editors. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. New York: Guilford, 501-524; 1999
  • Liu WN, Zhou CL. Influence of goal setting on receiving success-rate and self-control of table tennis players. China Sport Sci, 2007; 27: 57-63
  • Locke EA. Problems with goal-setting research in sports and their solution. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1991; 8: 311-316
  • Locke EA, Chah DO, Harrisom DS, Lustgarten N. Separating the effects of goal specificity from goal level. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process, 1989; 43: 270-287[Crossref]
  • Locke EA, Latham GP. The application of goal setting to sports. J Sport Psychol, 1985; 7: 205-222
  • Locke EA, Latham GP. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1990.
  • Locke EA, Latham GP. Goal setting theory. In O'NeilHF (Ed.), Motivation: theory and research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1994
  • Lutz RS, Karoly P, Okun MA. The why and the how of goal pursuit: Self-determination, goal process cognition, and participation in physical exercise. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2008; 9: 559-575[Crossref]
  • MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J. Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behav Res, 2004; 39: 99-128[Crossref]
  • McGregor I, Little BR. Personal projects, happiness, and meaning: On doing well and being yourself. Pers Soc Psychol, 1998; 74: 494-512[Crossref]
  • Miller RB, Behrens JT, Greene BA, Newman D. Goals and perceived ability: Impact on student valuing, selfregulation, and persistence. Contemp Educ Psychol, 1993; 18: 2-14[Crossref]
  • Morf CC. Personality at the hub: Extending the conception of personality psychology. J Res Pers, 2002; 36: 649-660[Crossref]
  • Oettingen G. Free fantasies about the future and the emergence of developmental goals. In Brandstätter J & Lerner RM (eds), Action and self development: Theory and research through the life span. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc, 315-342; 1999
  • Oettingen G, Hönig G, Gollwitzer PM. Effective self-regulation of goal attainment. Int J Educ Res, 2000; 33: 705-732[Crossref]
  • Oettingen G, Pak H, Schnetter K. Self-regulation of goal setting: Turning free fantasies about the future into binding goals. J Pers Soc Psychol, 2001; 80: 736-753[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Pates J, Oliver R, Maynard I. The effects of hypnosis on flow states and golf-putting performance. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2001; 13: 341-354[Crossref]
  • Pervin LA. The science of personality (2nd Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2003
  • Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in simple and multiple mediator models. Behav Res Meth, 2008; 40: 879-891[Crossref]
  • Sockett H. Education and will: aspects of personal capability. Am J Educ, 1988; 96: 195-214[Crossref]
  • Song YW, Qi B. Review of current research on self-monitoring. Studies Psychol Behav China, 2003; 1: 311-314
  • Su PR. Modern teaching and training of table tennis. Beijing: The People's Physical Education Press, 80-81; 2003
  • Theodorakis Y. Effects of self-efficacy, satisfaction and personals goals on swimming performance. Sport Psychol, 1995; 9: 245-253
  • Theodorakis Y. The influence of goals, commitment, self-efficacy and self-satisfaction on motor performance. J Appl Sport Psychol, 1996; 8: 171-182[Crossref]
  • VandeWalle D, Brown SP, Cron WL, Slocum JW. The influence of goal orientation and self-regulation tactics on sales performance: A longitudinal field test. J Appl Psychol, 1999; 84: 249-259[Crossref]
  • Weinberg RS, Bruya LD, Jackson SA. The effects of goal proximity and goal specificity on endurance performance. J Sport Psychol, 1985; 7: 296-305
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_2478_v10078-012-0056-y
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.