Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 33 | 163-172

Article title

Development of Sport Courage Scale


Title variants

Languages of publication



While theory and practice of sport have much to say about fear, stress and anxiety, they have little to say about courage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a Sport Courage Scale. Data were collected from two groups of male and female athletes aged from 13 to 22 in different individual and team sports. The first set of data (N = 380) was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, and the second set of data (N = 388) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Analyses revealed a 5-factor structure of Sport Courage Scale that supported factorial validity and reliability of scale scores. These factors were labelled: "Determination", "Mastery", "Assertiveness", "Venturesome", and "Self-Sacrifice Behaviour". Finally, evidence of test-retest reliability of scale scores was supported based on responses from 75 athletes. However, more research is needed to further improve the Sport Courage Scale.








Physical description


1 - 6 - 2012
4 - 7 - 2012


  • Buca Educational Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, TURKEY
  • School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK


  • Bentler, PM, Bonett, DG. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structure. Psychol Bull, 1980; 3: 588-606
  • Cashmore E. Sport and Exercise Psychology: The key concepts. London: Routledge, 2008
  • Cheung GW, Rensvold, RB. Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. SEM, 2002; 9: 233-255
  • Corlett J. Wirtue lost: Courage in Sport. In: Philosophy in sport. Eds: A Hollowchak. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002; 454-465
  • Fagin-Jones S, Midlarsky E. Courageous altruism: Personal and situational correlates of rescue during the Holocaust. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 136-147
  • Giulia B, Michela S, Daniela P. Attentional resources measured by reaction times highlight differences within pleasant and unpleasant, high arousing stimuli. Motivation and Emotion, 2002; 123-138
  • Gould D. Sport psychology in the new millennium: The psychology of athletic excellence and beyond. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2002; 14: 137-139[Crossref]
  • Greitemeyer T, Osswald S, Fischer P, Frey D. Civil courage: Implicit theories, related concepts, and measurement. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 115-119
  • Hannah TS, Sweeney PJ, Lester PB. Toward a courageous mindset: The subjective act and experience of courage. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 129-135
  • Hu L, Bentler PM. Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. SEM, 1999; 6: 1-55
  • Karageorghis CI, Terry P. Inside Sport Psychology. IIIinois: Human Kinetics, 2011
  • Kent M. Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005
  • Kilmann RH, O'Hara LA, Strauss JP. Developing and validating a quantitative measure of organizational courage. J Bus Psychol, 2010; 25: 15-23[Crossref][WoS]
  • Konter E, Ng J, Bayansalduz M. Revised version of sport courage scale for children. Energy Education Science and Technology: Social and Educational Studies Part B, 2013; 1: 331-340
  • Kowalski K, Crocker PRE. Development and validation of the Coping Function Questionnaire for adolescents in sport. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2001; 23: 136-155
  • Lopez SJ. Profiling courage: Introduction to the special issue on courage. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 79
  • Malcolm D. The Sage Dictionary of Sport Studies. London: Sage Publications, 2008
  • Martin AJ. Courage in the classroom: Exploring a new framework predicting academic performance and engagement. Sch Psychol Quarterly, 2011;26: 145-160[WoS]
  • Mavroudis C. A partnership in courage. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, Ann Thorac Surg, 2003: 75; 1366-71
  • Moris P. Fear and courage in children: Two sides of the same coin? J Child Fam Stud, 2009; 18: 486-490[WoS]
  • Muthén B, Muthén, L. Mplus User's Guide. Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén, 3463 Stoner Avenue, 2008
  • Plato. The Republic. New York: Penguin Books, 1970
  • Park N. Peterson C. Classification and Measurement of Character Strengths: Implication for Practice. In: Positive Psychology in Practice. Eds: PA Linley, S Joseph. NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2004
  • Pury CLS, Hensel, AD. Are courageous actions successful actions? J Posit Psychol, 2010; 1: 62-72
  • Pury CLS, Kowaski RM. Human strengths, courageous actions, and general and personal courage. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 120-128
  • Pury CLS, Kowalski RM, Spearmen J. Distinctions between general and personal courage. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 99-114
  • Rate CR, Clarke JA, Lindsay DR, Stemberg RJ. Implicit theories of courage. J Posit Psychol, 2007; 2: 80-98
  • Reber AS. Dictionary of Psychology. London: Penguin, 1995
  • Salvtore RM. Hardiness: The courage to grow from stress. J Posit Psychol, 2006; 1: 160-168
  • Schmidt NB, Koselka M. Gender differences in patients with panic disorder: Evaluation cognitive mediation of phobic avoidance. Cognit Ther Res, 2000; 24: 531-548
  • Thompson B, Daniel LG. Factor analytic evidence for the construct validity of scores: A historical overview and some guidelines. Educ Psychol Measur, 1996; 56: 197-208[Crossref]
  • Weinberg R, Gould D. Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. IIIinois: Human Kinetics, 2011
  • Woodard CR. Hardiness and the concept of courage. Couns Psychol J: Practice and Research, 2004; 3: 173-185
  • Woodard CR, Pury CLS. The construct of courage: Categorization and Measurement. Cons Psychol J: Practice and Research, 2007; 2: 135-147
  • Vealey RS, Chase M. Self-confidence in sport. In: Advances in Sport Psychology. Ed: T Horn. IIIinois: Human Kinetics, 2008
  • Vealey RS, Hayashi SW, Gamser-Holman M, Giaccobbi P. Sources of self-confidence: Conceptualization and instrument development. JSEP, 1998;1: 54-80
  • Vealey RS. Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. JSP, 1986; 8: 221-246

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.