Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 33 | 25-32

Article title

Gender Differences in Postural Stability Among Children


Title variants

Languages of publication



This study aimed to examine the gender differences in postural stability among 8-12 year-old children. Twenty-six children participated in this repeated measures study to measure the centre of pressure (COP) under one normal condition (CONTROL: hard surface, eyes open, and looking straight ahead) and two challenging sensory conditions (ECHB: eyes closed and head back; and EOCS: eyes open and compliant surface) in randomized order. Girls had significantly lower COP path velocity (COP-PV, p < 0.05, medium effect), smaller radial displacement (COP-RD, p < 0.05, medium effect), and lower area velocity (COP-AV, p < 0.05, medium effect) as compared to boys when the three conditions were pooled. Gender differences were found in the percentage changes in COP-RD during ECHB (p < 0.05, large effect) and EOCS (p < 0.05, medium effect), and in COP-AV during both ECHB and EOCS conditions (p < 0.05, medium effect). Postural stability performance of girls had higher correlations with age (-0.62 vs. -0.40), body mass (-0.60 vs. -0.42), foot length (-0.68 vs. -0.45), and physical activity level (-0.45 vs. 0.02), as compared to boys. Girls had better postural stability than boys but were more affected by altered sensory input information. Girls are more capable of integrating their sensory inputs, whereas boys treat each sensory input somewhat separately and rely more on somatosensory feedback. Exercises such as standing on unstable surfaces with eyes open instead of eye closed and head back are more beneficial to children's postural stability control system.







Physical description


1 - 6 - 2012
4 - 7 - 2012


  • Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong SAR
  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • The Technological and Higher Education, Institute of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR


  • Bell F. Principles of Mechanics and Biomechanics. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes; 1998
  • Brandt T, Krafcyzk S, Malsbenden I. Postural imbalance with head extension: improvement by training as a model for ataxia therapy. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1981; 374: 636-649
  • Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates; 1988
  • Cornilleau-Pérès V. Shabana N, Droulez J, Goh JCH, Lee GSM, Chew PTK. Measurement of the visual contribution to postural steadiness from the COP movement: methodology and reliability. Gait Posture, 2005; 22(2): 96-106[Crossref]
  • Crocker PR, Bailey DA. Faulkner RA, Kowalski KC, McGrath R. Measuring general levels of physical activity: preliminary evidence for the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1997; 29(10): 1344-1349[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Day BL, Steiger MJ, Thompson PD, Marsden CD. Effect of vision and stance width on human body motion when standing: implications for afferent control of lateral sway. J Physiol, 1993 Sep; 469: 479-99
  • Demura S, Kitabayashi T, Uchiyama M. Body sway characteristics during static upright posture in young children. Sport Sci Health, 2006; 1(4): 158-161[Crossref]
  • Freitas SM, Prado JM, Duarte M. The use of a safety harness does not affect body sway during quiet standing. Clin Biomech, 2005 Mar; 20(3): 336-9[Crossref]
  • Geldhof E, Cardon G, De Bourdeauhuij I, Danneels L, Coorevits P, Vanderstraeten G, De Clercq D. Static and dynamic standing balance: test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children. Eur J Pediatr, 2006; 65 (11): 779-786[Crossref]
  • Habib Z, Westcott S. Assessment of anthropometric factors on balance tests in children. Pediatr Phys Ther, 1998; 10(3): 101-109
  • Hirabayashi S, Iwasaki Y. Developmental perspective of sensory organization on postural control. Brain Dev, 1995; 17(2): 111-113[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Hopkins WG. Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med, 2000; 30(1): 1-15[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Jeka J, Kiemel T, Creath R, Horak F, Peterka R. Controlling human upright posture: velocity information is more accurate than position or acceleration. J Neurophysiol 2004; 92(4): 2368-2379[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Le Clair K, Riach C. Postural stability measures: what to measure and for how long. Clin Biomech, 1996; 11(3): 176-178[Crossref]
  • Lebiedowska MK, Syczewska M. Invariant sway properties in children. Gait Posture, 2000; 12(3): 200-204[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Lee AJ, Lin WH. The influence of gender and somatotype on single-leg upright standing postural stability in children. J Biomech, 2007; 23(3): 173-179
  • Masani K, Popovic MR, Nakazawa K, Kouzaki N, Nozaki D. Importance of body sway velocity information in controlling ankle extensor activities during quiet stance. J Neurophysiol, 2003; 90(6): 3774-3782[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Maurer C, Mergner, T, Peterka, RJ. Multisensory control of human upright stance. Exp Brain Res, 2006; 171: 231-50
  • Nolan L, Grigorenko A, Thorstensson A. Balance control: sex and age differences in 9- to 16-year-olds. Dev Med Child Neurol, 2005 Jul; 47(7): 449-54[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Odenrick P, Sandstedt P. Development of postural sway in the normal child. Hum Neurobiol, 1984; 3(4): 241-244[PubMed]
  • Peterson ML, Christou E, Rosengren KS. Children achieve adult-like sensory integration during stance at 12-years-old. Gait Posture, 2006 Jun; 23(4): 455-63[PubMed]
  • Riach C, Starkes J. Stability limits of quiet standing postural control in children and adults. Gait Posture, 1993; 1(2): 105-111[Crossref]
  • Riach CL, Hayes KC. Maturation of postural sway in young children. Dev Med Child Neurol, 1987; 29(5): 650-658[PubMed]
  • Riley PO, Mann R.W, Hodge, WA. Modelling of the biomechanics of posture and balance. J Biomech, 1990; 23(5): 503-506[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Steindl R, Kunz K, Schrott-Fischer A, Scholtz AW. Effect of age and sex on maturation of sensory systems and balance control. Dev Med Child Neurol, 2006 Jun; 48(6): 477-82[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Westcott SL, Lowes LP, Richardson PK. Evaluation of postural stability in children: current theories and assessment tools. Phys Ther 1997; 77(6): 629-645[PubMed]
  • Winter DA. Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. New York: Wiley-Interscience; 1990
  • Winter DA, Patla AE, Prince F, Ishac M, Gielo-Perczak K. Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing. J Neurophysiol, 1998 Sep; 80(3): 1211-21[PubMed]
  • Winter DA. A.B.C. of Balance during Standing and Walking. Waterloo: Waterloo Biomechanics; 1995

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.