Quantitative MRI of Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis and Gluteus Medius Muscle Workload after Squat Exercise: Comparison Between Squatting with Hip Adduction and Hip Abduction
Languages of publication
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use MRI to quantify the workload of gluteus medius (GM), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in different types of squat exercises. Fourteen female volunteers were evaluated, average age of 22 ± 2 years, sedentary, without clinical symptoms, and without history of previous lower limb injuries. Quantitative MRI was used to analyze VM, VL and GM muscles before and after squat exercise, squat associated with isometric hip adduction and squat associated with isometric hip abduction. Multi echo images were acquired to calculate the transversal relaxation times (T2) before and after exercise. Mixed Effects Model statistical analysis was used to compare images before and after the exercise (ΔT2) to normalize the variability between subjects. Imaging post processing was performed in Matlab software. GM muscle was the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip adduction and VM the least active during the squat associated with isometric hip abduction, while VL was the most active during squat associated with isometric hip adduction. Our data suggests that isometric hip adduction during the squat does not increase the workload of VM, but decreases the GM muscle workload. Squat associated with isometric hip abduction does not increase VL workload.
1 - 6 - 2012
4 - 7 - 2012
- Adams GR, Duvoisin MR, Dudley GA. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography as index of muscle function. J Appl Physiol, 1992; 73: 1578-83.
- Basmajian JV, De Luca CJ. Muscle Alive: their function revealed by electromyography. 5. ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 1985; 25-26.
- Besier TF, Draper CE, Gold GE, Beaupré GS, Delp SL. Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-beariong. J Orthopaed Res, 2005; 23: 345-50.[Crossref]
- Borg G. Borg's Perceived exertion and pain scales. Sweden: Human Kinetics, 1998.
- Boudreau SN, Dweyer MK, Mattacola CG, Lattermann C, Uhl TL, Keon JM. Hip-muscle activation during the lunge, single-leg squat, and step-up-and-over exercises. J Sport Rehabil, 2009; 18: 91-103.[PubMed]
- Carneiro AAO, Vilela GR, Araujo DB, Baffa O. MRI relaxometry: methods and applications. Braz J Phys, 2006; 36(1 Suppl A): 9-15.
- Cerny K. Vastus medialis oblique / vastus lateralis muscle activity ratios for selected exercises in persons with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Phys Ther, 1995; 75: 672-83.[PubMed]
- Chandler TJ, Wilson GD, Stone MH. The effect of the squat exercise on knee stability. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1989; 21: 299.[PubMed]
- Cheng HA, Robergs RA, Letellier JP, Caprihan A, Icenogle MV, Haseler LJ. Changes in muscle proton transverse relaxation times and acidosis during exercise and recovery. J Appl Physiol, 1995; 79: 1370-8.[PubMed]
- Colker CM, Swain MA, Lynch L. Effect of full verses parallel squats on quadriceps muscular hypertrophy in healthy male athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2002; 34(Suppl): 81.[Crossref]
- Conley MS, Stone MH, Nimmons M, Dudley GA. Resistance training and human cervical muscle recruitment plasticity. J Appl Physiol, 1997; 83: 2105-11.[PubMed]
- Coqueiro KRR, Bevilaqua-Grossi D, Bérzin F, Soares AB, Candolo C, Monteiro-Pedro V. Analysis on the activation of the VMO and VLL muscles during semisquat exercises with and without hip adduction in individuals with patelofemoral pain sindrome. J Electromyogr Kines, 2005; 15: 596-603.[Crossref]
- Dierks TA, Manal KT, Hamill J, Davis IS. Proximal and distal influences on hip and knee kinematics in runners with patellofemoral pain during a prolonged run. J Orthop Sport Phys, 2008; 38: 448-56.[WoS][Crossref]
- Earl JE, Schmitz RJ, Arnold BL. Activation of the VMO and VL during dynamic mini-squat exercises with and without isometric hip adduction. J Electromyogr Kines, 2001; 11: 381-6.[Crossref]
- Escamila RF. Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001; 33: 127-41.[Crossref]
- Fredericson M, Cookingham CL, Chaudhari AM, Dowdell BC, Oestreicher N, Sahrmann SA. Hip abductor weakness in distance runners with iliotibial band syndrome. Clin J Sport Med, 2000; 10: 169-75.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Hertel J, Earl JE, Tsang KKW, Miller SJ. Combining isometric knee extension exercise with hip adduction or abduction does not increase quadriceps EMG activity. Br j Sport Med, 2004; 38: 210-3.[Crossref]
- Hiemstra LA, Gofton WT, Kriellaars DJ. Hip strength following hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin J Sport Med, 2005; 15: 180-2.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Hodges PW, Richardson CA. The influence of isometric hip adduction on quadriceps femoris activity. Scand J Rehab Med, 1993; 25: 57-62.
- Irish SE, Millward AJ, Wride J, Haas BM, Shum GLK. The effect of closed-kinetic chain exercises and openkinetic chain exercise on the muscle activity of vastus medialis oblique and vastus laterais. J Strenght Cond Res, 2010; 24: 1256-62.[Crossref][WoS]
- Jenner G, Foley JM, Cooper TG, Potchen EJ, Meyer RA. Changes in magnetic resonance images of muscle depend on exercise intensity and durantion, not work. J Appl Physiol, 1994; 76: 2119-24.[PubMed]
- Kumagai M, Shiba N, Higuchi F, Nishima H, Inoue A. Functional evaluation of hip abductor muscles with use of magnetic resonance imaging. J Orthopaed Res, 1997; 15: 888-93.[Crossref]
- McHugh MP, Tyler TF, Tetro DT, Mullaney MJ, Nicholas SJ. Risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in high school athletes. Am J Sport Med, 2006; 34: 464-70.
- McKean MR, Dunn PK, Burkett BJ. Quantifying the movement and the influence of load in the back squat exercise. J Strenght Cond Res, 2010; 24: 1671-79.[WoS][Crossref]
- Meyer RA, Prior BM. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of muscle. Exerc Sport Sci R, 2000; 28: 89-92.
- Ninos JC, Irrgang JJ, Burdett R, Weiss JR. Electromyographic analysis of the squat performed in self-selected lower extremity neutral rotation and 30º of lower extremity turn-out from the self-selected neutral position. J Orthop Sport Phys, 1997; 25: 307-15.[Crossref]
- Nygren AT, Kaijser L. Water exchange induced by unilateral exercise in active and inactive skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol, 2002; 93: 1716-22.[PubMed]
- Ono T, Higashihara A, Fukubayashi T. Hamstring Functions During Hip-Extension Exercise Assessed With Electromyography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Res Sports Med, 2011; 19: 42-52.[PubMed][WoS][Crossref]
- Ploutz LL, Dudley GA. Use of thigh musculature in the squat exercise. Physiologist, 1992; 35: 185.
- Ploutz-Snyder LL, Nygren S, Cooper TG, Potchen EJ, Meyer RA. Different effects of exercise and edema on T2 relaxation in skeletal muscle. Magnet Reson Med, 1997; 37: 676-82.
- Powers CM. The Influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: A Theoretical perspective. J Orthop Sport Phys, 2003; 33: 639-46.[Crossref]
- Price TB, Kamen G, Damon BM, Knight CA, Applegate B, Gore JC, Eward K, Signorile JF. Comparison of MRI with EMG to study muscle activity associated with dynamic plantar flexion. Magn Reson Imagin, 2003; 21: 853-861.[Crossref]
- Price TB, Kennan RP, Gore JC. Isometric and dynamic exercise studied with echo planar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998; 30: 1374-80.[PubMed]
- Prior BM, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Cooper TG, Meyer RA. Fiber type and metabolic dependence of T2 increases in stimulated rat muscles. J Appl Physiol, 2001; 90: 615-23.[PubMed]
- Saab G, Thompson RT, Marsh GD. Effects of exercise on muscle transverse relaxation determined by MR imaging and in vivo relaxometry. J Appl Physiol, 2000; 88: 226-33.[PubMed]
- Scaglioni-Solano P, Song JE, Salem GJ. Lower extremity biomechanics during different squat depths. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2005; 37(Suppl): 393.
- Stensdotter A, Hodges W, Mellor R, Sundelin G, Hager-Ross C. Quadriceps activation in closed and in open kinetic chain exercise. Med Sci Sports Exercise, 2003; 35: 2043-7.[Crossref]
- Schall R. Estimation in generalized linear models with random effects. Biometrika, 1991; 78: 719-27.[WoS][Crossref]
- Tang SF, Chen CK, Hsu R, Chou SW, Hong WH, Lew HL. Vastus medialis obliquos and vastus lateralis activity in open and closed kinetic chain exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: an electromyographic study. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 2001; 82: 1441-5.[Crossref]
- Yue G, Alexander AL, Laidlaw DH, Gmitro AF, Unger EC, Enoka RM. Sensitivity of muscle proton spin-spin relaxation time as an index of muscle activation. J Appl Physiol, 1994; 77: 84-92.[PubMed]
Publication order reference