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2012 | 32 | 197-210

Article title

The Role of Training in the Development of Adaptive Mechanisms in Freedivers


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Freediving is a sport in which athletes aim to achieve the longest or the deepest breath-hold dive. Divers are at risk of gradually increasing hypoxia and hypercapnia due to a long time spent underwater and additionally of increasing hyperoxia while depth diving. Exceeding the limits of hypoxia endurance leads to loss of consciousness or even to death whithout immediate first aid. Often enhanced world records indicate the ability to shape specific to the discipline adaptive mechanisms of cardio-pulmonary system which are individually conditioned. During stay underwater heartbeats decelerating called bradycardia, increase in blood pressure, peripheral blood vessels narrowing and blood centralization in freediver's organism. These mechanisms enhance blood oxygen management as well as transporting it first of all to essential for survival organs, i.e. brain and heart. These mechanisms are supported by spleen and adrenal glands hormonal reactions.







Physical description


1 - 5 - 2012
30 - 5 - 2012


  • Departament of Theory and Methodology of Water Sports, University School of Physical Education, Cracov, Poland
  • Departament of Theory and Methodology of Water Sports, University School of Physical Education, Cracov, Poland
  • Department of Sports Theory, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland
  • Departament of Theory and Methodology of Water Sports, University School of Physical Education, Cracov, Poland
  • Departament of Physiology and Biochemistry, University School of Physical Education, Cracov, Poland
  • Department of Sports Theory, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland


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