Effects of a Process-Oriented Goal Setting Model on Swimmer's Performance
Languages of publication
The aim of this work was to study the impact of the implementation of a mental training program on swimmers' chronometric performance, with national and international Portuguese swimmers, based on the goal setting model proposed by Vasconcelos-Raposo (2001). This longitudinal study comprised a sample of nine swimmers (four male and five female) aged between fourteen and twenty, with five to eleven years of competitive experience. All swimmers were submitted to an evaluation system during two years. The first season involved the implementation of the goal setting model, and the second season was only evaluation, totaling seven assessments over the two years. The main results showed a significant improvement in chronometric performance during psychological intervention, followed by a reduction in swimmers' performance in the second season, when there was no interference from the investigators (follow-up).
1 - 5 - 2012
30 - 5 - 2012
- Bagozzi, R. P. (1992). The self-regulation of attitudes, intentions and behaviour. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, pp.178-204.[Crossref]
- Biddle, S. (1993). Attribution research and sport psychology. In: R. Singer, M. Murphey and L. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology. New York: Macmillan, pp. 437-463.
- Brewer, B. W. (2009). Introduction. In: B. W. Brewer (Ed.), Sport psychology: Handbook of sports medicine and science. Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, pp. 1-6.
- Brewer, B. W. and Shillinglaw, R. (1992). Evaluation of a psychological skills training workshop for male intercollegiate lacrosse players. The Sport Psychologist, 6, pp. 139-147.
- Burton, D. (1989). Winning isn't everything: The impact of performance goals on collegiate swimmers' cognitions and performance. The Sport Psychologist, 32, pp. 105-132.
- Burton, D., Naylor, S. and Holliday, B. (2001). Goal setting in sport: Investigating the goal effectiveness paradox. In: R. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas and C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley pp. 497-528.
- Chelladurai, P. (1991). Coach and their athlete's motivation. Treino Desportivo, 22, pp. 29-36.
- Cumming, J. and Ste-Marie, D. (2001). The cognitive and motivational effects of imagery training: A matter of perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 15, pp. 276-288.
- DeCharms, R. (1976) Enhancing motivation: Change in classroom. New York: Irvington.
- Duda, J. (1993). Goals: A social-cognitive approach to the study of achievement motivation in sport. In: R. N. Singer, M. Murphey and L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology. New York: Macmillan, pp. 421-436.
- Evans, L., Jones, J. and Mullen, R. (2004). An imagery intervention during the competitive season with an elite rugby union player. The Sport Psychologist, 18, pp. 252-271.
- Feltz, D. and Landers, D. (1983). The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, pp. 25-57.
- Giannini, J., Weinberg, R. and Jackson, A. (1988). The effects of mastery competitive and cooperative goals on the performance of simple and complex basketball skills. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, pp. 408-417.
- Goginsky, A. and Collins, D. (1996). Research design and mental practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 14, pp. 381-392.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Hall, C. (2001). Imagery in sport and exercise. In: R. Singer, H. Hausenblas and C. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 529-549.
- Harwood, C., Cumming, J. and Hall, C. (2003). Imagery use in elite youth sport participants: Reinforcing the applied significance of achievement goal theory. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74(3), pp. 292-300.[Crossref]
- Jackson, S., Thomas, P., Marsh, H. and Smethurst, C. (2001). Relationships between flow, self-concept, psychological skills, and performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, pp. 129-153.[Crossref]
- Johnson, S., Ostrow, A., Perna, F. and Etzel, E. (1997). The effects of group versus individual goal setting on bowling performance. The Sport Psychologist, 11, pp. 190-200.
- Landin, D. and Hebert, E. (1999). The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, pp. 263-282.[Crossref]
- Locke, E. A. and Latham, G. P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, pp. 205-222.
- Locke, E. A. and Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Loehr, J. (1986). Mental toughness training for sports: Achieving athletic excellence. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene.
- Pierce, B. E. and Burton, D. (1998). Scoring the perfect 10: Investigation the impact of goal setting styles on a goal setting program for female gymnasts. The Sport Psychologist, 12, pp. 156-168.
- Salmela, J. H. (1989). Long-term intervention with the Canadian men's Olympic gymnastic team. The Sport Psychologist, 3, pp.340-334.
- Smith, J. D., Norris, S. and Hogg, J. (2002). Performance evaluation of swimmers. Sports Medicine, 32(9), pp. 539-554.[Crossref]
- Vasconcelos-Raposo, J. (2001). Goal-setting applied to swimming: A new perspective. Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal, unpublished.
- Webb, T. and Sheeran, P. (2005). Integrating concepts from goal theories to understand the achievement of personal goals. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, pp. 69-96.[Crossref]
- Weinberg, R. S. (2009). Motivation. In: B. W. Brewer (Ed.), Sport psychology: Handbook of sports medicine and science Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, pp. 7-17.
- Weinberg, R. S., Burton, D., Yukelson, D. and Weigand, D. (1993). Goal setting in competitive sport: An exploratory investigation of practices of collegiate athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 7, pp. 275-289.
- Weinberg, R. S., Butt, J., Knight, B. and Perritt, N. (2001). Collegiate coaches' perceptions of their goal setting practices: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, pp. 374-398.[Crossref]
- Weinberg, R. S., Stitcher, T. and Richardson, P. (1994). Effects of a seasonal goal setting program on lacrosse performance. The Sport Psychologist, 8, pp. 166-175.
- Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Publication order reference