Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 31 | 159-168

Article title

Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players


Title variants

Languages of publication



There are not enough studies that describe the isokinetic strength of professional soccer players at high angular velocities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in isokinetic strength of Turkish professional soccer players (n=14) over the course of a 24-week soccer season. The isokinetic strength of players who underwent usual soccer training and weekly competition throughout the soccer season was assessed by means of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer with the knee attachment. The peak torque of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at angular velocities of 60°/s, 300°/s and 500°/s. Players were tested at the beginning and end of the competitive season. While the first- and second-test measurements did not show significant changes at 60°/s and 300°/s angular velocities, at the end of the training period, players' knee strength changed significantly at 500°/s angular velocities. In addition, the H/Q ratio improved significantly for the dominant as well as non-dominant leg at 500°/s. Significant bilateral strength improvements for knee flexors were also observed at 500°/s. The findings of this study suggest that usual daily soccer training (technical, tactical, power, strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) and weekly competition might produce changes in knee strength at high angular velocities.







Physical description


1 - 3 - 2012
3 - 4 - 2012


  • School of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
  • School of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
  • School of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
  • Department of Kinesiology and Sports Studies, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA


  • Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Trolle M, Bangsbo J, Klausen K. Isokinetic hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio: Influence from joint angular velocity, gravity correction and contraction mode. Acta Physiol Scand, 1995; 154: 421-427[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer-: with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand, 1994; 151 (suppl 619): 1-156
  • Behm DG, Sale DG. Velocity specificity of resistance training. Sports Med, 1993; 15: 374-388[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Brady K, Maile A, Ewing B. An investigation into the fitness of professional soccer players over two seasons. In: Reilly T, Bangsbo J, Clarys J, Franks I, Hughes M, eds. Science and football III. London: E & FN Spon, 1997: 118-122
  • Brewer J. Changes in selected physiological characteristics of an English first division soccer squad during a league season. J Sport Sci, 1990; 8: 76-77
  • Casajũs JA. Seasonal variation in fitness variables in professional soccer players. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 2001; 41: 463-467
  • Cometti G, Maffiuletti NA, Pousson M, Chatard JC, Maffulli N. Isokinetic strength and anaerobic power of elite, subelite and amateur French soccer players. Int J Sports Med, 2001; 22(1): 45-51[Crossref][PubMed]
  • De Proft E, Cabri J, Dufour W, Clarys JP. Strength training and kick performance in soccer players. In: Reilly T, Lees A, Davids K, Murphy WJ, eds. Science and football II. London: E & FN Spon, 1988: 108-113
  • Dintiman GB, Ward RD. Sport speed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1988
  • Dudley GA, Djamil R. Incompatibility of endurance and strength-training modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol, 1985; 59(5): 1446-1451[PubMed]
  • Häkkinen K, Komi PV, Alen M. Effect of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of leg extensor muscles. Acta Physiol Scand, 1985; 125 (4): 587-600[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Hamzeh M, Head A. Isokinetic hamstrings and quadriceps evaluation of professional soccer players. J Sports Sci, 2004; 22(3): 265-266
  • Hoff J, Berdahl GO, Bråten S. Jumping height development and body mass considerations in ski jumping. In: Müller E, Schwameder H, Raschner C, Lidinger S, Kornexl E, eds. Science and skiing II. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac, 2001; 403-412
  • Hoff J, Helgerud J. Endurance and strength training for soccer players. Sports Med, 2004; 34(3): 165-180[Crossref][PubMed]
  • İşleğen C, Akgün N. Effects of 6 weeks pre-seasonal training on physical fitness among soccer players. In: Reilly T, Lees A, Davids K, Murphy WJ, eds. Science and football II. London: E & FN Spon, 1988; 125-128
  • Jönhagen S, Németh G, Eriksson E. Hamstring injuries in sprinters. Am J Sports Med, 1994; 22(2): 262-266[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Kanehisa H, Miyashita M. Specificity of velocity in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1983; 52: 104-108[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Kannus P. Isokinetic evaluation of muscular performance: Implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. Int J Sports Med, 1994; 15: 11-18[Crossref]
  • Kawamori N and Newton RU. Velocity specificity of resistance training: Actual movement velocity versus intention to move explosively. Strength Cond J, 2006, 28(2): 86-91
  • Kramer JF, Balsor BE. Lower extremity preference and knee extensor torques in intercollegiate soccer players. Can J Sport Sci, 1990; 15(3): 180-184[PubMed]
  • Leatt P, Shephard R, Plyley M. Specific muscular development in under-18 soccer players, J Sports Sci, 1987; 5: 165-175[Crossref]
  • Mark AN, Kyle MT, Frank EM. Relationships between isokinetic knee strength, single-sprint performance, and repeated-sprint ability in football players. J Strength Cond Res, 2004; 18: 867-872
  • Metaxas TI, Koutlianos N, Sendelides T, Mandroukas A. Preseason physiological profile of soccer and basketball players in different divisions. J Strength Cond Res, 2009; 23(6): 1704-1713[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • Murray DP, Brown LE. Variable velocity training in the periodized model. Strength Cond J, 2006; 28(1): 88-92[Crossref]
  • Narici MV, Roi GS, Landoni L, Minetti AE, Cerretelli P. Change in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1989; 59: 310-319[Crossref]
  • O'Donoghue P. Time-motion analysis of work rate in elite soccer. In: Tavares MF, ed. Notational analysis of sport IV: Centre for Team Sports Studies. Porto: Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Porto, 2001; 65-70
  • Öberg B, Möller M, Ekstrand J, Gillquist J. Exercises for knee flexors and extensors in uninjured soccer players: Effects of two different programs. Int J Sports Med, 1985; 6(3): 151-154[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Poulson M, Amiridis IG, Cometti G, Van Hoecke J. Velocity-specific training in elbow flexors. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1999; 80(4): 367-372[Crossref]
  • Prevost MC, Nelson AG, Maraj BKV. The effect of two days of velocity-specific isokinetic training on torque production. J Strength Cond Res, 1999;13(1): 35-39
  • Reilly T, Thomas V. Effects of a programme of pre-season training on the fitness of soccer players. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 1977; 17(4): 401-412
  • Reilly T, Drust B. The isokinetic muscle strength of women soccer players. Coach Sport Sci J, 1997; 2(2): 12-17
  • Reilly T, Thomas V. A motion analysis of work-rate in different positional roles in professional football match-play. J Hum Mov Stud, 1976; 2: 87-97
  • Rutherford OM, Jones DA. The role of learning and coordination in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1986; 55: 100-105[Crossref]
  • Sale DG. Neural adaptation to strength training. In: Komi PV, ed. Strength and power in sports. Oxford: IOC Medical Commission, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992; 249-265
  • Sale DG. Testing strength and power. In: MacDougall JD, Wenger HA, Green HJ, eds. Physiological testing of the high-performance athlete, 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1991; 21-106
  • Taskin H. Evaluating sprinting ability, density of acceleration, and speed dribbling ability of professional soccer players with respect to their positions. J Strength Cond Res, 2008; 22(5): 1481-1486[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • Wisloff U, Helgerud J, Hoff J. Strength and endurance of elite soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998; 30(3): 462-467[PubMed][Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.