Reliability of Handgrip Strength Test in Basketball Players
Languages of publication
Handgrip strength is important in basketball as various movements rely on the continuous use of wrist and digits flexor muscles when catching, holding, shooting and throwing the ball. Therefore, the assessment of handgrip strength is used in prepubertal, adolescent and adult basketball players. The reliability of handgrip strength may be influenced by several factors including age. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of handgrip strength in basketball players from childhood to adulthood. Male basketball players (n = 90) were assigned into three groups: prepubertal (9.8 ± 0.7yrs), adolescents (14.4 ± 0.6yrs), and adults (26.1 ± 5.6yrs). Each participant performed three maximal isometric contractions on each hand in two occasions, one day apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. The test-retest reliability was high for both preferred (ICC = 0.94 - 0.98) and non-preferred (ICC = 0.96 - 0.98) hands, without differences in reliability among age-groups. The results showed a significant age-related increase (p < 0.05) in absolute and relative handgrip strength irrespective of hand preference. The present results indicate that maximum handgrip strength can be measured reliably, using the Jamar hand dynamometer, in basketball players from childhood to adulthood.
1 - 3 - 2012
3 - 4 - 2012
- Ángyán L, Téczely T, Zalay Z, Karsai I. Relationship of anthropometrical, physiological and motor attributes to sport-specific skills. Acta Physiol Hung, 2003; 90: 225-231.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Atkinson G, Nevill AM. Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Med, 1998; 26: 217-238.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1986; 1: 307-10.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Clerke AM, Clerke JP, Adams RD. Effects of hand shape on maximal isometric grip strength and its reliability. J Hand Ther, 2005; 18: 19-29.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Coelho E Silva MJ, Figueiredo AJ, Moreira Carvalho H, Malina RM. Functional capacities and sport-specific skills of 14- to 15 year-old male basketball players: Size and maturity effects. Eur J Sport Sci, 2008; 8: 277-285.[Crossref][WoS]
- Coelho E Silva MJ, Moreire Carvalho H, Goncalves CE, Figueiredo AJ, Elferink-Gemser MT, Philippaerts RM, Malina RM. Growth, maturation, functional capacities and sport-specific skills in 12-13 year-old-basketball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2010; 50: 174-81.
- Cortis C, Tessitore A, Lupo C, Pesce C, Fossile E, Figura F, Capranica L. Inter-limb coordination and strength, jump, and sprint performances following a youth men's basketball game. J Strength Cond Res, 2011; 25: 135-142.[WoS][Crossref]
- De Smet L, Vercammen A. Grip Strength in Children. J Pediatr Orthop Part B, 2001; 10:352-354.
- España-Romero V, Artero EG, Jimenez-Pavón D, Cuenca-Garcia M, Ortega FB, Castro-Piñero J, Sjöstrom M, Castillo-Garzon MJ, Ruiz JR. Assessing health-related fitness tests in the school setting: Reliability, feasibility and safety; The ALPHA Study. Int J Sports Med, 2010a; 31: 490-497.[Crossref][WoS]
- España-Romero V, Artero EG, Santaliestra-Pasias AM, Gutierrez A, Castillo MJ, Ruiz JR. Hand span influences optimal grip span in boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years. J Hand Surg, 2008; 33A:378-384.[WoS][Crossref]
- España-Romero V, Ortega FB, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Artero EG, Rey JP, Ruiz JR. Elbow position affects handgrip strength in adolescents: Validity and reliability of Jamar, DynEx, and TKK dynamometers. J Strength Cond Res, 2010b; 24: 272-277.[WoS][Crossref]
- Gojanovic B, Waeber B, Gremion G, Liaudet L, Feihl F. Bilateral symmetry of radial pulse in high-level tennis players: implications for the validity of central aortic pulse wave analysis. J Hypertens, 2009; 27:1617-1623.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
- Gunther CM, Bórger A, Rickert M, Crispin A, Schulz CU. Grip strength in healthy Caucasian adults: Reference values. J Hand Surg, 2008; 33A:558-565.[Crossref][WoS]
- Hager-Ross C, Rosblad B. Norms for grip strength in children aged 4-16 years. Acta Paediatr, 2002; 91:617-625.
- Holm I, Fredriksen PM, Fosdahl M, Vollestad N. A normative sample of isotonic and isokinetic muscle strength measurements in children 7 to 12 years of age. Acta Paediatr, 2008; 97:602-607.[Crossref][WoS]
- Hopkins G, Schabort E, Hawley J. Reliability of power in physical performance tests. Sports Med, 2001; 31: 211-234.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Lagerstrom C, Nordgren B. On the reliability and usefulness of methods for grip strength measurement. Scand J Rehab Med, 1998; 30: 113-119.
- Margonato V, Roi GS, Cerizza C, Galdabino GL. Maximal isometric force and muscle cross-sectional area of the forearm in fencers. J Sports Sci, 1994; 12:567-572.[Crossref]
- Massy-Westropp N, Rankin W, Ahern M, Krishnan J, Hearn TC. Measuring grip strength in normal adults: Reference ranges and a comparison of electronic and hydraulic instruments. J Hand Surg, 2004; 29A:514-519.[Crossref]
- Molenaar HM, Selles RW, Zuidam JM, Willemsen SP, Stam HJ, Hovius SER. Growth diagrams for grip strength in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2010; 468: 217-223.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Molenaar HM, Zuidam JM, Selles RW, Stam HJ, Hovius SER. Used by children age-specific reliability of two grip-strength dynamometers when used by children. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2008; 90:1053-1059.[PubMed][WoS][Crossref]
- Nevill AM, Holder RL. Modelling handgrip strength in the presence of confounding variables: results from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey. Ergonomics, 2000; 43:1547-58.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Ortega FB, Artero EG, Ruiz JR, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Bergman P, Hagstromer M, Ottevaere C, Nagy E, Konsta O, Rey-Lopez JP, Polito A, Dietrich S, Plada M, Beghin L, Manios Y, Sjostrom M, Castillo MJ, on behalf of the HELENA Study Group. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in European adolescents. The HELENA Study. Int J Obes, 2008; 32: S49-S57.[Crossref]
- Peolsson A, Hedlund R, Oberg B. Intra- and inter tester reliability and reference values for hand strength. J Rehab Med, 2001; 33: 36-41.[Crossref]
- Ruiz JR, Espana-Romero V, Ortega FB, Sjostrom M, Castillo MJ, Gutierrez A. Hand span influences optimal grip span in male and female teenagers. J Hand Surg, 2006; 31A:1367-1372.[Crossref]
- Ruiz-Ruiz J, Mesa JLM, Gutierrez A, Castillo MJ. Hand size influences optimal grip span in women but not in men. J Hand Surg, 2002; 27A: 897-901.[Crossref]
- Shechtman O, Gestewitz L, Kimble C. Reliability and Validity of the DynEx Dynamometer. J Hand Ther, 2005; 18:339-347.[PubMed][WoS][Crossref]
- Svensson E, Waling K, Hager-Ross C. Grip strength in children: Test-retest reliability using Grippit. Acta Paediatr, 2008; 97: 1226-1231.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
- Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty. Arch Dis Child, 1976; 51: 170-179.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Visnapuu M, Jurimae T. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res, 2007; 21: 923-929.[PubMed][WoS]
- Visnapuu M, Jurimae T. Relations of anthropometric parameters with scores on basic and specific motor tasks in young handball players. Percept Mot Skills, 2009; 108: 670-676.[PubMed]
Publication order reference