The Effects of Rearfoot Position on Lower Limb Kinematics during Bilateral Squatting in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Pronated Foot Type
Languages of publication
Clinicians frequently assess movement performance during a bilateral squat to observe the biomechanical effects of foot orthotic prescription. However, the effects of rearfoot position on bilateral squat kinematics have not been established objectively to date. This study aims to investigate these effects in a population of healthy adults with a pronated foot type.Ten healthy participants with a pronated foot type bilaterally (defined as a navicular drop >9mm) performed three squats in each of three conditions: barefoot, standing on 10mm shoe pitch platforms and standing on the platforms with foam wedges supporting the rearfoot in subtalar neutral. Kinematic data was recorded using a 3D motion analysis system. Between-conditions changes in peak joint angles attained were analysed.Peak ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.0005) and hip abduction (p=0.024) were significantly reduced, while peak knee varus (p=0.028) and flexion (p=0.0005) were significantly increased during squatting in the subtalar neutral position compared to barefoot. Peak subtalar pronation decreased by 5.33° (SD 4.52°) when squatting on the platforms compared to barefoot (p=0.006), but no additional significant effects were noted in subtalar neutral.Significant changes in lower limb kinematics may be observed during bilateral squatting when rearfoot alignment is altered. Shoe pitch alone may significantly reduce peak pronation during squatting in this population, but additional reductions were not observed in the subtalar neutral position. Further research investigating the effects of footwear and the subtalar neutral position in populations with lower limb pathology is required.
1 - 3 - 2012
3 - 4 - 2012
- Ball KA, Afheldt MJ. Evolution of foot orthotics-Part 1: Coherent theory or coherent practice? J Manip Physiol Ther, 2002a; 25(2), 116-124.[Crossref]
- Ball KA, Afheldt MJ. Evolution of foot orthotics-Part 2: Research reshapes long-standing theory. J Manip Physiol Ther, 2002b; 25(2), 125-134.[Crossref]
- Bell DR, Padua DA, Clark MA. Muscle strength and flexibility characteristics of people displaying excessive medial knee displacement. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 2008; 89, 1323-1328.[WoS][Crossref]
- Billis E, Katsakiori E, Kapodistrias C, Kapreli E. Assessment of foot posture: Correlation between different clinical techniques. The Foot, 2007; 17, 65-72.[Crossref]
- Buist I, Bredeweg SW, Lemmink KAPM, van Mechelen W, Diercks RL. Predictors of Running-Related Injuries in Novice Runners Enrolled in a Systematic Training Program: A Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Sport Med, 2010; 38(2), 273-280.[Crossref][WoS]
- Chaudhari AM, Andriacchi TP. The mechanical consequences of dynamic frontal plane limb alignment for non-contact ACL injury. J Biomech, 2006; 3, 330-338[Crossref]
- Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. J Athl Training, 2005; 40(1), 41-46.
- Eng JJ, Pierrynowski MR. The effect of foot orthotics on three-dimensional lower-limb kinematics during walking and running. Phys Ther, 1994; 74, 836-844.[PubMed]
- Gross ML, Davlin LB, Evanski PM. Effectiveness of orthotic shoe inserts in the long-distance runner. Am J Sport Med, 1991; 19(4), 409-412.[Crossref]
- Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, Heidt Jr RS, Colosimo AJ, McLean SG, van den Bogert AJ, Paterno MV, Succop P. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sport Med, 2005; 33, 492-501.[Crossref]
- Hirth CJ. Clinical movement analysis to identify muscle imbalances and guide exercise. Athlet Ther Today, 2007; 12(4), 10-14.
- MacLean C, McClay Davis I, Hamill J. Influence of a custom foot orthotic intervention on lower extremity dynamics in healthy runners. Clin Biomech, 2006; 21, 623-630.[Crossref]
- Maynard V, Bakheit AMO, Oldham J, Freeman J. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of gait measurements with CODA mpx30 motion analysis system. Gait Posture, 2003; 17(1), 59-67.[Crossref]
- McCulloch MU, Brunt D, Van der Linden D. The effect of foot orthotics and gait velocity on lower limb kinematics and temporal events of stance. J Orthop Sport Phys, 1993; 17(1), 2-10.[Crossref]
- McNamara C, Clifford A. To Investigate Inter- and Intra-rater Reliability in Obtaining Subtalar Neutral Using Rearfoot Correction. Thesis (B. Sc.), 2009; University of Limerick.
- Mills K, Blanch P, Chapman AR, McPoil TG, Vicenzino B. Foot orthoses and gait: A systematic review and meta-analysis of literature pertaining to potential mechanisms. Brit J Sport Med, 2009; 44, 1035-1046.[WoS]
- Minert D. Foot orthoses: materials and manufacturers. Athlet Ther Today, 2001; 5(1), 27-30.
- Monaghan K, Delahunt E, Caulfield B. Increasing the number of gait trial recordings maximises intra-rater reliability of the CODA motion analysis system. Gait Posture, 2007; 25, 303-315.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
- Mundermann A, Nigg BM, Humble RN, Stefanyshyn DJ. Foot orthotics affect lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during running. Clin Biomech, 2003; 18, 254-262.[Crossref]
- Nawoczenski DA, Cook TM, Saltzman CL. The effect of foot orthotics on three-dimensional kinematics of the leg and rearfoot during running. J Orthop Sport Phys, 1995; 21(6), 317-327.[Crossref]
- Neely FG. Biomechanical risk factors for exercise-related lower limb injuries. Sports Med, 1998; 26(6), 395-413.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Nigg BM, Nurse MA, Stefanyshyn DJ. Shoe inserts and orthotics for sport and physical activities. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1999; 31(7), S421-428.[Crossref]
- Nigg BM. The role of impact forces and foot pronation: A new paradigm. Clin J Sport Med, 2001; 11, 2-9.[Crossref][PubMed]
- PPL Biomechanics. PPL Biomechanics: A Practical Approach, Intermediate Course Handbook. 2006; unpublished.
- Richards JG. The measurement of human motion: A comparison of commercially available systems. Hum Movement Sci, 1999; 18, 589-602.[Crossref]
- Sell K, Verity TM, Worrel TW, Pease BJ, Wigglesworth J. Two measurement techniques for assessing subtalar joint position: a reliability study. J Orthop Sport Phys, 1994; 19(3), 162-167.[Crossref]
- Williams DS, McClay-Davis I, Baitch SP. Effect of inverted orthoses on lower-extremity mechanics in runners. Med Sci Sport Exer, 2003; 35(12), 2060-2068.[Crossref]
Publication order reference