Short-Term Isokinetic Training Versus Isotonic Training: Effects on Asymmetry in Strength of Thigh Muscles
Languages of publication
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two training protocols on the isokinetic performance of athletes. The study was conducted in 38 athletes, (age 23.3 ± 3.6 years) participating in national level leagues of different sports, whose initial concentric hamstrings-to-quadriceps (conH/Q) torque ratio was lower than 0.5. During seasonal testing, an isokinetic measurement of knee extensors and flexors was performed at 60º/s. The athletes were divided into two groups. Nineteen athletes performed the isokinetic training protocol (IT) while the second group of 19 athletes followed the isotonic training protocol (RT). Both protocols lasted 4 weeks. After completing the training protocols, both groups underwent a final isokinetic testing. The isokinetic data revealed significant increases after training in measures of peak torque in both extensor and flexor muscle groups, in both the IT and RT study groups (p < 0.05). There were significant increases (p< 0.05) in conH/Q ratio in both groups after the implemented protocols, but greater in IT group. Consequently, applied IT protocol induced changes in working muscles, thereby restoring detected asymmetry to an acceptable balance more efficiently compared to RT protocol.
1 - 12 - 2011
25 - 12 - 2011
- Laboratory of Provincial Institute for Sport, Novi Sad, Serbia
- Medical Faculty, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
- Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
- Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
- Abe, T., DeHoyos, D. V., Pollock, M. L. & Garzarella L. (2000). Time cours for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, 174-180.[Crossref]
- Akima, H., Takahashi, H., Kuno, S., Masuda, K., Masuda, T., Shimojo, H., Anno, I., Itai, Y. & Katsuta, S. (1999). Early phase adaptations of muscle use and strength to isokinetic training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 588-594.[Crossref]
- Askling, C., Karlsson, J. & Thorstensson, A. (2003). Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 13, 244-250.[Crossref]
- Bampouras, T. M., Orme, D., Relph, N. & Small, K. Previous high - intensity activity affects lower limb strength ratios. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2010;44:i19 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.078972.57[Crossref]
- Bell G. J. & Wenger, H. A. (1992). Physiological adaptations to velocity - controlled resistance training. Sports Medicine, 13, 234-244.[Crossref]
- Blazevich, A. J., Gill, N. D., Deans, N. & Zhou, S. (2007). Lack of human muscle architectural adaptation after short-term strength training, Muscle Nerve, 35, 78-86.[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]
- Brockett, C. L., Morgan, D. L. & Proske, U. (2004). Predicting Hamstring Strain Injury in Elite Athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 379-387.[Crossref]
- Brown L. (2000). Isokinetics in human performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Caiozzo, V. J., Perrine, J. J. & Edgerton, V. R. (1981). Training induced alterations of the in vivo force-velocity relationship of human muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, 51, 750-754.
- Coombs R. & Garbutt, G. (2002). Developments in the use of the hamstring/quadriceps ratio for the assessment of the muscle balance. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine, 1, 56-62.
- Croiser, JL., Forthomme, B., Namurois, M. H., Vanderthommen, M. & Crielaard, JM. (2002). Hamstring muscle strain recurrence and strength performance disorders. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 3, 199-203.
- Croiser, J. L. (2004). Muscular imbalance and acute lower extremity muscle injuries in sport. International SportMed Journal, 5, 169-176.
- Dauty, M., Potiron - Josse, M. & Rochcongar, P. (2003). Identification of previous hamstring muscle injury by isokinetic concentric and eccentric torque measurement in elite soccer players. Isokinetic and Exercise Science, 11, 139-144.
- Drid, P., Drapsin, M., Trivic, T., Lukac, D., Obadov, S. & Milosevic, Z. (2009a). Asymmetry of muscle strength in elite athletes. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 1, 3-5.
- Drid, P., Drapsin, M., Trivic, T., Bratic, M. & Obadov, S. (2009b). Thigh muscles flextion/extension ratio in elite judo players. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 1, 21-26.
- Dvir, Z. (2004). Isokinetics Muscle testing, Interpretation and Clinical Applications, 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone.
- Fousekis, K., Tsepis, E. & Vagenas, G. (2010). Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9, 364-373.
- Gabriel, D. A., Kamen, G. & Frost, G. (2006). Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sport Medicine, 36, 133-149.[Crossref]
- Grimby, G., Gustafsson, E., Peterson, L. & Renström, P. (1980). Quadriceps function and training after knee ligament surgery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 12, 70-75.
- Gur, H., Cakun, N., Akova, N., Okay E. & Kucukoglu, S. (2002). Concentric versus combined concentric - eccentric isokinetic training: effects on functional capacity and symptoms in patients with osteoarthrosis of the knee. Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 308-316.
- Houweling-Taco, A. W., Head A. & Hamzeh, M. (2009). A Validity of isokinetic testing for previous hamstring injury detection in soccer players, Isokinetics & Exercise Science, 17, 213-220.[WoS]
- Impellizzeri, F. M., Rampinini, E., Maffiuletti, N. & Marcora, S. M. (2007). A vertical jump force test for assessing bilateral strength asymmetry in athletes. Medicine in Science and Sports Exercise, 39, 2044-2050.[WoS]
- Impellizzeri, F. M., Bizzini, M., Rampinini, E., Cereda, F. & Maffiuletti, N. (2008). Reliability of isokinetic strength imbalance ratios measured using the Cybex NORM dynamometer. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 28, 113-119.[WoS][Crossref]
- Lazaridis, S., Bassa, E., Patikas, D., Giakas, G., Gollhofer, A. and Kotzamanidis, C. (2010). Neuromuscular differences between prepubescents boys and adult men during drop jump. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(1), 67-74.[WoS]
- Lord, J. P., Aitkens, S. G., McCrory, M. A. & Bemauer, E. M. (1992). Isometric and isokinetic measurement of hamstring and quadriceps strength. Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73, 324-330.
- Madsen, O. R. (1996). Torque, total work, power, torque acceleration energy and acceleration time assessed on a dynamometer: reliability of knee and elbow extensor and flexor strength measurements. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 74, 206-210.[Crossref]
- Murray, D. P., Brown, L. E., Zinder, S. M., Noffal, G. J., Bera, S. G. & Garrett, N. M. (2007). Effects of velocity - specific training on rate of velocity development, peak torque, and performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 870-874.
- Olmo, J., Lopez-Illescas, A., Martin, I., Jato S. & Rodriguez, L. P. (2006). Knee flexion and extension strength and H/Q ratio in high-level track and field athletes. Isokinetics & Exercise Science, 14, 279-289.
- Perrin, D. H. (1993). Isokinetic exercise and assessment, Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
- Schlumberger, A., Laube, W., Bruhn, S., Herbeck, B., Dahlinger, M., Fenkart, G., Schmidtbleicher, D. & Mayer, F. (2006). Muscle imbalances - fact or fiction? Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 1, 3-11.
- Tagesson, S., Öberg, B., Good, L. & Kvist, J. (2008). A comprehensive rehabilitation program with quadriceps strengtheningin closed versus open kinetic chain exercise in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: A randomized clinical trial evaluating dynamic tibial translation and muscle function. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36, 298-307.[WoS]
- Yeung, S. S., Suen A. M. & Yeung, E. W. (2009). A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 589-594.[WoS][Crossref]
Publication order reference