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2011 | 29 | 133-139

Article title

Psychometric Properties of The Greek Version of the Test of Performance Strategies-Competition Scale (TOPS-CS)


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The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Test of Performance Strategies-Competition scale (TOPS-CS; Thomas et al., 1999) in Greek athletic population. The TOPS-CS was designed to assess eight psychological strategies used by athletes in competition (activation, automaticity, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, negative thinking, relaxation and self-talk). In order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inventory, two different research studies were conducted in two different age groups (n1=382 athletes, aged 16 to 20 years and n2=343 athletes, aged 12 to 15 years). Furthermore, 263 athletes, (aged 16 to 20 years) completed the TOPS-CS, purposing to perform confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the first study supported the initial factorial structure of the TOPS-CS for athletes aged 16-20 years. Reliability analysis also provided adequate evidence for the internal consistency and stability of the scale for Greek athletes of this age. However, for athletes aged 12 to 15 years, the validity and reliability of the inventory were questionable and further research is required.







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1 - 9 - 2011
4 - 10 - 2011


  • Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Athens, Greece
  • Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Athens, Greece
  • Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Athens, Greece


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