The objective of this study was to determine the sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic position in standing and kneeling in the canoe in young canoeists. Forty-four young highly-trained canoeists (mean age: 15.11 ± 0.61 years) were recruited. Thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic inclination were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system in standing position and in the base position (kneeling on one knee in the canoe) and catch phase of the stroke. The mean thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination in standing were 44.66 ± 8.80º, -30.34 ± 8.31º, and 14.20 ± 7.32º, respectively. In the canoe, the thoracic, lumbar and pelvic angles were 39.66 ± 9.52º, -24.32 ± 6.79º, and 15.18 ± 4.34º, respectively, for the base position (p<0.001 with respect to standing, except for pelvic inclination), and 28.93 ± 10.45º, -13.45 ± 10.60º, and 37.61 ± 6.27º, respectively, for the catch phase of the stroke (p<0.001 with respect to standing and base position). A higher percentage of hyperkyphotic postures in standing than in the canoe was found, while thoracic hypokyphosis increased in the catch phase of the stroke. In regards to the lumbar curve, the percentage of hypolordosis postures in the base position was higher than when standing. Lumbar kyphotic postures were detected in the catch phase of the stroke. In conclusion, the standing thoracic hyperkyphosis in young canoeists may be related to factors other than the posture and movement in the canoe. The canoeists adopted a lumbar flexed posture at the catch phase of the stroke, although this position may not affect the sagittal configuration of lumbar spine in standing. Postural training should be included in the training program of canoeists to improve the thoracic posture in the standing position.