Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2011 | 27 | 5-16

Article title

Kinematic Analysis of the Take-Off and Start of the Early Flight Phase on a Large Hill (HS-134 m) during the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships


Title variants

Languages of publication



The take-off is often considered the most significant and difficult phase of a ski jump. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare three groups of ski jumpers representing different skill levels during the execution of the take-off and start of the early flight phase in ski jumping. A total of 30 athletes, recruited from competitors performing ski jumps on an HS-134 m jumping hill, were categorized into three groups based on jump-length execution. Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities, trunk, and skis of the ski jumpers. Findings indicated that the ski jumpers with shorter jump length demonstrated significantly smaller in-run velocity (p < .05), while the elite and mediocre level ski jumpers exhibited a significantly faster shift of the thigh at the transition from take-off into the early flight of the jump (p < .05) than did the low-level ski jumpers. In addition, the centre of body mass (CoM) of the elite group shifted significantly more forward over the skis (p < .01) than did that of the other two groups. Finally, interindividual differences existed among ski jumpers at similar performance levels. The largest coefficients of variation (CVs) were found for the position changes of the trunk and shank behind the jumping hill edge.







Physical description


1 - 3 - 2011
6 - 4 - 2011


  • Department of Biomechanics and Engineering Cybernetics, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
  • Department of Graduate Programs in Health Sciences, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Seton Hall University, N. J., U.S.A.
  • Department of Biomechanics and Engineering Cybernetics, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
  • Department of Biomechanics and Engineering Cybernetics, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
  • Sport Research Centre, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic


  • Arndt A, Brüggemann G-P, Virmavirta M, Komi, PV. Techniques used by Olympic ski jumpers in the transition from takeoff to early flight. J Appl Biomech, 1995; 11:224-237.
  • Baumann W. (1979). The biomechanical study of ski-jumping. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Science on Skiing. p. 70-95, 1979.
  • Brüggemann G-P, De Monte G., Komi PV, Isolehto J, Müller E, Potthast W, Schwameder H, Virmavirta M. Biomechanical analysis of the takeoff, the early and the mid-flight phases in ski jumping during the Salt Lake City Winter Games. Med Sci Sport Exer, 2002; 34:123.[Crossref]
  • Janura M, Elfmark M, Seidl V, Vaverka F. An analysis of ski jumping of the Nordic Combined competitors-JWSC Strbske Pleso 2000. In: Válková H, Hanelová, Z (Eds.) Movement and Health: proceedings from the 2nd international conference. p. 218-221. Univerzita Palackého: 2001, Olomouc. (in Czech)
  • Janura M, Svoboda Z, Uhlář R. A comparison of ski jump execution in a group of the best jumpers. In: Linnamo V, Komi PV, Müller E (Eds.) Science and Nordic Skiing. p. 205-214, Meyer & Meyer Sport: 2007, Oxford.
  • Janura M, Vaverka F. Evaluation of the video analysis system I. (Precision of the analyzed data). Tel Vých Šport, 1997; 7:28-31. (in Czech)
  • Kaps P, Schwameder H, Engstler C. Inverse dynamic analysis of take-off in ski jumping. In: Müller E, Schwameder H, Kornexl E, Raschner C (Eds.) Science and Skiing. p. 72-87, E&FN Spon: 1997, London.
  • Karas V, Otáhal S, Sušanka P. Biomechanics of Physical Exercises. SPN: 1990, Praha. (in Czech)
  • Komi PV, Nelson RC, Pulli M. Biomechanics of ski jumping. Studies in Sport Physical Education and Health, 1974; 5:1-53.
  • Schmölzer B, Müller W. Individual flight styles in ski jumping: results obtained during Olympic Games competitions. J Biomech, 2005; 38:1055-1065.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Schwameder H. Dreidimensionale biokinematische Bewegungsanalyse der Absprung- und ersten Flugphase im Skispringen. In: Kornexl E, Nachbauer W (Eds.) Symposiumsbericht 25 Jahre Sportswissenschaften in Innsbruck. p. 379-401, Innsbruck: Eigenverlag: 1993, Innsbruck.
  • Schwameder H. Biomechanics research in ski jumping, 1991-2006. Sports Biomech, 2008; 7:114-136.[WoS]
  • Schwameder H, Müller E. Biomechanical description and analysis of the V-technique in ski jumping. Spectrum der Sportwissenschaften, 1995; 7:5-36. (in German)
  • Schwameder H, Müller E, Lindenhofer E, DeMonte G, Potthast W, Brüggemann P, Virmavirta M, Isolehto J, Komi P. Kinematic characteristics of the early flight phase in ski-jumping. In Müller E, Bacharach D, Klika R, Lindinger S, Schwameder H (Eds.) Science and Skiing III. p. 381-391, Meyer & Meyer Sport: 2005, Oxford.
  • Vaverka F. Biomechanics of ski jumping. Univerzita Palackého: 1987, Olomouc. (in Czech)
  • Vaverka F. Why is it difficult to characterise a common ski jumping takeoff technique for all athletes? In: Müller E, Dimitriou M, Komi PV (Eds.) Current Issues on Biomechanics of Ski Jumping. p. 16-17, Universität Salzburg: 2001, Salzburg.
  • Vaverka F, Janura M. Take-off optimization patterns in ski jumping: general versus individual models. In: IV. World Congress of Biomechanics-Proceedings CD. University of Calgary: 2002, Calgary.
  • Vaverka F, Janura M, Elfmark M, McPherson M, Puumala R. A general versus individual model of the skijumping technique. In: Abrantes JMCS (Ed.) Proceedings of the XIV ISBS Symposium. p. 293-296, Edicoes FMH: 1996, Funchal-Madeira.
  • Vaverka F, Janura M, Elfmark M, Salinger J, McPherson M. Inter and intraindividual variability of the skijumper's take-off. In: Müller E, Schwameder H, Kornexl E, Raschner C (Eds.) Science and Skiing. p. 61-71, E&FN Spon: 1997, London.
  • Virmavirta M. Limiting Factors in Ski Jumping Take-off. Jyväskylän Yliopisto: 2000, Jyväskylä.
  • Virmavirta M, Isolehto J, Komi PV, Brüggemann G-P, Potthast W, De Monte G, Müller E, Schwameder H. Characteristics of the early flight phase in the Olympic ski jumping competition. J Biomech, 2005; 38:2157-2163.[Crossref]
  • Virmavirta M, Isolehto J, Komi PV, Schwameder H, Pigozzi F, Massazza G. Take-off analysis of the Olympic ski jumping competition (HS-106m). J Biomech, 2009; 42:1095-1101.[WoS]
  • Virmavirta M, Kivekäs J, Komi PV. Take-off aerodynamics in ski jumping. J Biomech, 2001; 34:465-470.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Virmavirta M, Komi PV. Take-off forces in ski jumping. Int J Sport Biomech, 1989; 5:248-257.
  • Virmavirta M, Komi, PV. Takeoff analysis of a champion ski jumper. Coach Sport Sci J, 1994; 1:23-27.
  • Vodicar J, Jost B. The factor structure of chosen kinematic characteristics of take-off in ski jumping. J Hum Kinet, 2010; 23:37-45.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.