Perfectionism and Achievement Goals in Adult Male Elite Athletes who Compete at the National Level and above
Languages of publication
Different views on perfectionism, and different approaches about achievement goals, have led to studies on relationships between perfectionism and achievement goals. Stoeber et al. (2009) found relationship patterns from perfectionism and achievement goals in young Finnish ice-hockey players' under-16, in which it was found that perfectionistic strivings were associated with mastery-approach and performance-approach goals, and perfectionistic concerns with mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Thus, as Stoeber et al. (2009) noted, findings can be generalized to older age-groups, as researchers have pointed out that achievement goal orientations in athletes may change when athletes become older (Elliot & Conroy, 2005; Spray & Keegan, 2005). Thus, we examined the theoretical model by Stoeber et al. (2009), to investigate relationships between perfectionism and achievement goals in adult elite athletes. For this purpose, 134 adult elite athletes completed questionnaires of MIPS (Stoeber, Otto & Stoll, English version, 2006), sport - MPS - 2 (Gotwals & Dunn, 2009), and AGQ - S (Conroy et al., 2003). On the assumption of the final theoretical model as based on a few significant indices, perfectionistic strivings was associated with mastery-approach and performance-approach goals, while perfectionistic concerns was associated with mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals. Contrary to expectations, there was no relationship between perfectionistic concerns and performance-approach goals. In fact, the present research results put in ambiguity the concept of perfectionism and the relationship between perfectionism and achievement goals, which were the main aims of our research. Moreover, a number of indices obtained structural equation modeling, which showed marginal to no significant effects. Thus, such equivocal results clearly imply that further research on context is needed. However, it appears that positive and negative aspects of perfectionism have complex relationships with each other
1 - 12 - 2010
17 - 1 - 2011
- Ames C, Archer J. Mothers' belief about the role of ability and effort in school learning. J Educ Psychol, 1978. 79: 409-414.
- Blatt SJ. The destructiveness of perfectionism: Implications for the treatment of depression. Am Psychol, 1995. 50: 1003-1020[PubMed][Crossref]
- Burns DD. The spouse who is a perfectionist. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 1983. 17: 219-230.
- Chang EC. On the perfectibility of the individual: Going beyond the dialectic of good versus evil. In E. C. Chang, & L. J. Sanna (Eds.), Virtue, vice, and personality: The complexity of behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2003. pp. 125-144.
- Conroy DE, Elliot AJ, Hofer SM. A 2×2 achievement goals questionnaire for sport: Evidence for factorial invariance, temporal stability, and external validity. J Sport Exer Psy, 2003. 25: 456-476.
- Dunn JGH, Dunn JC, Gotwals JK, Vallance JKH, Craft JM, Syrotuik DG. Establishing construct validity evidence for the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2006a. 7: 57-79.[Crossref][WoS]
- Dunn JGH, Gotwals JK, Dunn JC, Syrotuik DG. Examining the relationship between perfectionism and trait anger in competitive sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2006b. 4: 7-24.
- Duda JL, Nicholls JG. Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. J Educ Psychol, 1992. 89: 290-299[Crossref]
- Dweck CS. Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 1986. 41: 1040-1048.[Crossref]
- Elliot AJ, Conroy DE. Beyond the dichotomous model of achievement goals in sport and exercise psychology. Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 2005. 1: 17-25.
- Elliot AJ, Harackiewicz JM. Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol, 1996. 70: 461-475.[Crossref]
- Elliot AJ, McGregor HA. A 2_2 achievement goal framework. J Pers Soc Psychol, 2001. 80: 501-519.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Enns MW, Cox BJ. The nature and assessment of perfectionism: A critical analysis. In G. L. Flett, & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 33-62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002.
- Flett GL, Hewitt PL. The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 2005. 14: 14-18.[Crossref]
- Frost RO, Marten P, Lahart CM, Rosenblate R. The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Ther Res, 1990. 74: 449-468.[Crossref]
- Gill DL. Psychological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise. 2nd Edn. Human Kinetics Publishers, 2000.
- Gotwals JK, Dunn JGH. A multi-method multi-analytic approach to establishing internal construct validity evidence: The Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale 2. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 2009. 13: 71-92
- Hall HK, Kerr AW, Kozub SA, Finnie SB. Motivational antecedents of obligatory exercise: The influence of achievement goals and multidimensional perfectionism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2007. 8: 297-316.[Crossref][WoS]
- Hamachek DE. Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 1978. 15: 27-33.
- Hill RW, Huelsman TJ, Furr RM, Kibler J, Vicente BB, Kennedy K. A new measure of perfectionism: The perfectionism inventory. J Pers Assess, 2004. 82: 80-91[PubMed][Crossref]
- Hollender MH. Perfectionism. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1965. 6: 94-103.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Horney K. Neurosis and human growth. New York: Norton, 1950.
- Midgley C, Urdan T. Academic self-handicapping and achievement goals: A further examination. Contemp Educ Psychol, 2001. 26: 61-75[PubMed][Crossref]
- Nicholls JG. Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation. In R. Ames, & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1984. Vol. 1 (pp. 39-73).
- Pintrich PR. An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research. Contemp Educ Psychol, 2000. 25: 92-104.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Skaalvik EM. Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self-perceptions, and anxiety. J Educ Psychol, 1997. 89: 71-81.[Crossref]
- Spray CM, Keegan RJ. Beyond the dichotomous model of achievement goals in sport and exercise psychology: Comment on Elliot and Conroy (2005). Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 2005. 1: 47-49.
- Stoeber J, Becker C. Perfectionism, achievement motives, and attribution of success and failure in female soccer players. Int J Psychol, 2008. 43 (6): 980-987.[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
- Stoeber J, Otto K. Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Pers Soc Psychol Rev, 2006. 10: 295-319.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Stoeber J, Otto K, Pescheck E, Becker C, Stoll O. Perfectionism and competitive anxiety in athletes: Differentiating striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection. Pers Indiv Differ, 2007. 42: 959-969.[Crossref]
- Stoeber J, Stoll O, Pescheck E, Otto K. Perfectionism and achievement goals in athletes: Relations with approach and avoidance orientations in mastery and performance goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2008. 9: 102-121.[WoS][Crossref]
- Stoeber J, Stoll O, Salmi O, Tiikkaja J. Perfectionism and achievement goals in young Finnish ice-hockey players aspiring to make the Under-16 national team. J Sport Sci, 2009. 27: 85-94.[Crossref][WoS]
- Stoeber J, Otto K, Stoll O. Multidimensional Inventory on Perfectionism in Sport. English Version, 2006.
- Vallance JKH, Dunn JGH, Dunn JLC. Perfectionism, anger, and situation criticality in competitive youth ice hockey. J Sport Exer Psychol, 2006. 28: 326-386.
Publication order reference