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2010 | 26 | 13-19

Article title

The Comparison of Different Types of Observational Training on Motor Learning of Gymnastic Handstand


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The present study aimed at assessing the influence of three types of observational training on motor learning of gymnastic handstand. Fifty healthy male subjects (age 20.35±1.44) from the faculty of Physical Education, University of Shahid Chamran served as the participants in the study. They were randomly assigned to three groups: 1: Actual model observation group (AOG), 2: Actual model observation and verbal description group (AOVG), 3: Animated model observation and verbal description group (AONG). Each group underwent training for 3 weeks, 3 sessions per week. The whole sample practiced the handstand skill equally ten times per session. The acquisition test was preformed after the last session while the retention test was done 48 hours later. Values of p<0.05 were chosen as significant. The results of repeated measures analysis showed that all three types of training improved the handstand skill performance for retention. As well as the acquisition phase. Furthermore, the results of ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the three groups regarding the acquisition test. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups regarding the retention test. Our findings revealed that observation of model with verbal teaching improves learning of the handstand skill, while observation without verbal description has no effect on learning the skills.







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1 - 12 - 2010
17 - 1 - 2011


  • Department of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical education & Sport Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
  • Department of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical education & Sport Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
  • Department of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical education & Sport Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
  • Department of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical education & Sport Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran


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