Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2010 | 25 | 67-76

Article title

Effects of Growth Hormone Therapy and Physical Exercise on Anaerobic and Aerobic Power, Body Composition, Lipoprotein Profile in Middle Aged Men


Title variants

Languages of publication



Recently growth hormone therapy has been used as an age delaying drug in middle aged men and women as well as in the elderly. Positive effects have been shown in regards to body mass and body composition changes, fat metabolism, bone mineral density and muscle strength. Exercise is a potent physiological stimulus for growth hormone secretion and both aerobic and resistance exercise results in significant, acute serum increases in GH concentration. It is unclear however whether a combination of exercise and hGH therapy further increases physical performance in adults and increases changes in body composition and biochemical variables related to health. For this purpose a group of 15 middle aged men (45,7±5,8 years, 93,2±16,3kg and 183,3±4cm), slightly overweight were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Both groups exercised for 3 month, performing 2 aerobic sessions per week and 2 resistance workouts, increasing training loads every two weeks. The experimental group received additionally hGH subcutaneous injections beginning with 0,2 IU daily for the first month and then increasing it to 0,4 and 0,6 IU in successive month. VO2max was evaluated during a progressive ergocycle test to volitional exhaustion, while anaerobic power and capacity were measured during the 30s Wingate test. Additionally body mass and body composition were evaluated as well as the lipoprotein profile and the concentration of chosen anabolic hormones. The results indicate a significant rise in resting concentrations of GH and IGF-1 after the replacement therapy but no additional benefits in regards to aerobic fitness and fat metabolism in comparison to exercise only. A more profound effect was observed in case of anaerobic performance, thus it was concluded that even small doses of hGH stimulated additional protein synthesis following resistance exercise what allowed for significant increases in FFM, anaerobic power (W/kg) and capacity (J/kg) as evaluated obtained during the Wingate test. It was concluded that for a more significant effect of hGH therapy in regards to physical performance greater doses of this hormone have to be used, along with an intensive exercise program.







Physical description


30 - 9 - 2010
9 - 10 - 2010


  • Department of Sports Theory, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Sports Theory, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Biochemistry, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Sports Games, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Sports Theory, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Physiological and Medical Sci, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Sports Theory, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland


  • Baumann G. Growth hormone heterogeneity: genes, isohormones, variants and binding proteins. Endocr Rev, 1991. 12: 424-49[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Bouillanne O, Reinfray M, Tissandier O, Nasr A, Lahlou A, Cnockaert X, Piette F. Growth hormone therapy in elderly people: an age-delaying drug? Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 1996. 10(5): 416-30[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Cummings DE, Merriam GR. Age-related changes in growth hormone secretion: should the somatopause be treated? Semin Reprod Endocrinol, 1999. (14):311-25[Crossref]
  • Fernholm R, Bramnert M, Hagg E, Hilding A, Baylink DJ, Mohan S, Thoren M. Growth hormone replacement therapy improves body composition and increases bone metabolism in elderly patients with pituitary disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000. 85(11):4104-12[PubMed]
  • Giannoulis MG, Sonksen PH, Umpleby M, Breen L, Pentcost C, Whyte M, McMillan CV, Bradley C, Martin FC. The effects of growth hormone and/or testosterone in healthy elderly men: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006. 91(2):477-84[Crossref]
  • Godfrey RJ, Madgwick Z, Whyte GP. The exercise-induced growth hormone response in athletes. Sports Med, 2003. 33: 599-613[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Kanaley JA, Weatherup-Dentes MM, Hartman ML. Obesity attenuates the growth hormone response to exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1999. 4(9):3156-61
  • Lanfranco F, Gianotti L, Giordano R, Pellegrino M, Maccario M, Atvat E. Ageing, growth hormone and physical performance. J Endocrinol Invest, 2003. 26(9):861-72[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Lewis UJ, Sinha YN, Lewis GP. Structure and properties of members of the hGH family: a review. Endocr J, 2000. 47: S1-8.[Crossref]
  • Monson JP. Long-term experience with GH replacement therapy: efficacy and safety. Eur J Endocrinol, 2003. 148 Suppl 2:S9-14
  • Mukherjee A, Murray RD, Shalet SM. Impact of growth hormone status on body composition and the skeleton. Horm Res, 2004. 62 Suppl 3:35-41[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Rodriguez-Arnao J, Jabbar A, Fulcher K, Besser GM, Ross RJ. Effects of growth hormone replacement on physical performance and body composition in GH deficient adults. Clin Endocrinol. (Oxf.), 1999. 51(1): 53-60[Crossref]
  • Roemmich JN, Rogol AD. Exercise and growth hormone: does one affect the other? J Pediatr, 1997. 131(1 Pt 2): S75-S80.
  • Svensson J, Jansson JO, Ottosson M, Johannsson G, Taskinen MR, Wiklund O, Bengtsson BA. Treatment of obese subjects with the oral growth hormone secreatagogue MK-677 affects serum concentrations of several lipoproteins, but not lipoprotein (a). J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1999. 84:2028-2033
  • Taaffe DR, Pruitt L, Reim J, Hintz RL, Butterfield G, Hoffman AR, Marcus R. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on the muscle strength response to resistance exercise in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1994. 79(5): 1361-1366[PubMed]
  • Thorner MO, Chapman IM, Gaylinn BD, Pezzoli SS, Hartman ML. Growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing peptide as therapeutic agents to enhance growth hormone secretion in disease and aging. Recent Prog Horm Res, 1997. 52:215-44.[PubMed]
  • Urhausen A, Gabriel H, Kindermann W. Blood hormones as markers of training stress and overtraining. Sports Med, 1995. 20(4): 251-76[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Mielke K, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Testosterone supplementation in healthe older men drives GH and IGF-I secretion without potentiation peptidyl secretagogue efficacy. Eur J Endocrinol, 2005. 153(4): 577-86
  • Veldhuis JD, Patrie J, Wideman L, Patterson M, Weltman JY, Weltman A. Contrasting negative-feedback control of endogenously driven and exercise-stimulated pulsatile growth hormone secretion in women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004. 89(2): 840-846[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Veldhuise JD, Patrie JM, Frick K, Weltman JY, Weltman AL. Administration of recombinant human GHRH-1,44- amide for 3 months abdominal visceral fat mass and increases physical performance measures in postmenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol, 2005. 153(5):669-77
  • Verhelst J., Abs R. Long-term growth hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults. Drugs, 2002. 62(16):2399-412[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Wallymshmed ME, Foy P, Shaw D, Hutcheon R, Edwards RH, MacFarlane IA. Quality of life, body composition and muscle strength in adult growth hormone deficiency: the influence of growth hormone replacement therapy for up to 3 years. Clin Endocrinol. (Oxf.), 1997. 47(4): 439-46
  • Weltman A, Wideman L, Weltman JY, Veldhuis JD. Neuroendocrine control of GH release during acute aerobic exercise. J Endocrinol Invest, 2003. 26(9): 843-50[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Weltman A, Weltman JY, Veldhuis JD, Hartman ML. Body composition, physical exercise, growth hormone and obesity. Eat Weight Disord, 2001. 6(3 Suppl): 28-37[PubMed]
  • Weltman A, Weltman JY, Watson Winfield DD, Frick K, Patrie J, Kok P, Keenan DM, Gaesser GA, Veldhuis JD. Effects of continuous versus intermittent exercise, obesity, and gender on growth hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93(12): 4711-20[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • Wideman L, Weltman JY, Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Weltman A. Growth hormone release during acute chronic aerobic and resistance exercise. Sports Med, 2002. 32(15): 987-1004[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Yarasheski KE. Growth hormone effects on metabolism, body composition, muscle mass, and strength. Exerc Sports Sci Rev, 1994. 22: 285-312
  • Yarasheski KE, Campbell JA, Smith K, Rennie MJ, Holloszy JO, Bier DM. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men. Am J Physiol, 1992. 262(3 Pt 1): E261-E267
  • Yarasheski KE, Zachwieja JJ, Campbell JA, Bier DM. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth and strength in older men. Am J Physiol, 1995. 268(2Pt1):E268-E276

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.