Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2010 | 24 | 79-85
Article title

Sex Differences in Growth and Performance of Track and Field Athletes 11-15 Years

Title variants
Languages of publication
Objective: To evaluate sex differences in functional performances of youth track and field athletes.Methods: Four tests of functional capacity were administered to 309 youth 11-15 years training for track and field at sport schools, 136 boys and 173 girls. Grip strength, standing long jump, 2 kg medicine ball throw and 20 m sprint were measured; height, weight and adiposity were also. Two age groups were compared, 11-13 and 14-15 years. ANCOVA was used to test sex differences by age group in the total sample (disciplines combined) and specific disciplines; age, height and weight were covariates.Results: For the total sample, males in both age groups performed better than females in the four tests but sex differences were greater among 14-15 year olds. Within disciplines, sex differences among sprinters and middle distance and distance runners were greater at 14-15 years. Results varied for general athletics; the magnitude of sex differences was similar for strength in both age groups, greater for the throw at 11-13 years and greater for the jump and sprint at 14-15 years.Conclusion: Although sex differences in performance were apparent among athletes 11-13 years, they were greater among athletes 14-15 years, reflecting to a large extent the male adolescent spurt in body size, muscle mass, strength and power. Sex differences were more established in sprinters and middle distance and distance runners, and more variable in participants in general athletics.
Physical description
1 - 1 - 2010
21 - 6 - 2010
  • Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2004.
  • Eisenmann JC, Malina RM. Age- and sex-associated variation in neuromuscular capacities of adolescent distance runners. J Sports Sci, 2003, 21, 551-557.
  • Malina RM, Geithner CA, O'Brien R, Tan SK. Sex differences in the motor performances of elite young divers. Ital J Sport Sci, 2005, 12, 18-23.
  • Malina RM, Ignasiak Z, Rożek K, Sławinska T, Domaradzki J, Fugiel, J, et al. Growth, maturity and functional characteristics of female athletes 11-15 years of age. Hum Movement, under review.
  • Malina RM, Rożek K, Ignasiak Z, Sławinska T, Fugiel J, Kochan K, et al. Growth and functional characteristics of male athletes 11-15 years of age. Hum Movement, 2010, under review.
  • Kemper HCG, Verschuur R. Motor performance fitness tests. In HCG Kemper (ed): Growth, Health and Fitness of Teenagers. Basel: Karger, 1985, pp 96-106.
  • Beunen G, Malina RM, Van't Hof MA, Simons J, Ostyn M, Renson R, et al. Adolescent Growth and Motor Performance: A Longitudinal Study of Belgian Boys. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1988.
  • Carron AV, Bailey DA. Strength development in boys from 10 through 16 years. Mon Soc Res Child Develop, 1974, 39, serial no 157.
  • Heras Yague P, de la Fuente JM. Changes in height and motor performance relative to peak height velocity: A mixed-longitudinal study of Spanish boys and girls. Am J Hum Biol, 1998, 10, 647-660.
  • Beunen G, Malina RM. Growth and physical performance relative to the timing of the adolescent spurt. Exerc Sports Sci Rev, 1988, 16, 503-540.
  • Malina RM, Woynarowska B, Bielicki T, Beunen G, Eweld D, Geithner CA, et al. Prospective and retrospective longitudinal studies of the growth, maturation, and fitness of Polish youth active in sport. Int J Sports Med, 1997, 18 (suppl 3), S179-S185.[Crossref]
  • Malina RM, Bielicki T. Retrospective longitudinal growth study of boys and girls active in sport. Acta Paediat, 1996, 85, 570-576.
  • Malina RM. Crescita e Maturazione di Bambini ed Adolescenti Praticanti Atletica Leggera/Growth and Maturation of Child and Adolescent Track and Field Athletes (in both Italian and English). Rome, Italy: Centro Studi e Ricerche, Federazione Italiana di Atletica Leggera, 2006.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.