Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2010 | 24 | 57-64

Article title

A Comparison of Anthropometry between Ironman Triathletes and Ultra-swimmers


Title variants

Languages of publication



We intended to compare the anthropometry of male and female Ironman triathletes with the anthropometry of male and female ultra-swimmers. Body mass, body mass index and body fat were lower in both male and female triathletes compared to swimmers. Body height and length of limbs were no different between the two groups. In the multi-variate analysis, in male triathletes, body mass (p=0.015) and percent body fat (p=0.0003) were related to race time; percent body fat was also related to the swim split (p=0.0036). In male swimmers, length of the arm was related to race time (p=0.0089). In female triathletes and swimmers, none of the investigated anthropometric variables showed an association with race time. We concluded that Ironman triathletes and ultra-swimmers were different regarding anthropometry and that different anthropometric variables were related to race time. We assume that other factors, such as training and equipment, as opposed to anthropometry, may better predict race time in male and female Ironman triathletes.







Physical description


1 - 1 - 2010
21 - 6 - 2010


  • Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
  • Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
  • Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
  • Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland


  • Acevedo EO, Meyers MC, Hayman M, Haskin J. Applying physiological principles and assessment techniques to swimming the English Channel. A case study. J sport med phys fit. 1997, 37: 78-85.
  • Ball SD, Altena TS, Swan PD. Comparison of anthropometry to DXA: a new prediction equation for men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004, 58: 1525-1531.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Ball SD, Swan P, Desimone R. Accuracy of anthropometry compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. A new generalizable equation for women. Res Q Exercise Sport 2004, 75: 248-258.[Crossref]
  • Becque MD, Katch VL, Moffatt RJ. Time course of skin-plus-fat compression in males and females. Hum Biol, 1986, 58: 33-42.[PubMed]
  • Gatsonis C, Sampson AR. Multiple correlation: exact power and sample size calculations. Psychol Bull, 1989, 106: 516-524.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Geladas ND, Nassis GP, Pavlicevic S. Somatic and physical traits affecting sprint swimming performance in young swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2005, 26: 139-144.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Gulbin JP, Gaffney PT. Ultraendurance triathlon participation: typical race preparation of lower level triathletes. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 1999, 39: 12-15.
  • Keatinge WR, Khartchenko M, Lando N, Lioutov V. Hypothermia during sports swimming in water below 11 degrees C. Brit J Sport Med, 2001, 35: 352-353.[Crossref]
  • Knechtle B, Duff B, Amtmann G, Kohler G. Cycling and running performance, not anthropometric factors, are associated with race performance in a Triple Iron Triathlon. Research in Sports Medicine 2007, 15: 257-269.[WoS]
  • Knechtle B, Kohler G. Running performance not anthropometric factors is associated with race success in a Triple Iron Triathlon. Brit J Sport Med, 2009, 43: 437-441.[Crossref][WoS]
  • Knechtle B, Christinger N, Kohler G, Knechtle P, Rosemann T. Swimming in ice cold water. Irish J Med Sci 2009, 178: 507-511.[Crossref][WoS]
  • Landers GJ, Blanksby BA, Ackland TR, Smith D. Morphology and performance of World championship triathletes. Ann Hum Biol, 2000 27: 387-400.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Leake CN, Carter JEL. Comparison of body composition and somatotype of trained female triathletes. J Sport Sci, 1991, 9: 125-135.[Crossref]
  • Lepers R. Analysis of Hawaii Ironman performances in elite triathletes from 1981-2007. Med Sci Sport Exer, 2008, 40: 1828-1834.
  • Lepers R, Sultana F, Thierry B, Hausswirth C, Brisswalter J. Age-related changes in triathlon performance. Int J Sports Med, 2009, 30: 1-6.
  • Neubauer O, König D, Wagner KH. Recovery after an Ironman triathlon: sustained inflammatory responses and muscular stress. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008, 104: 417-426.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • O'Toole ML, Hiller DB, Crosby LO, Douglas PS. The ultraendurance triathlete: a physiological profile. Med Sci Sport Exer 1987, 19: 45-50.
  • Pugh LGC, Edholm OG. The physiology of Channel swimmers. Lancet 1955, 2: 761-768.[Crossref]
  • Siders WA, Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW. Relationships among swimming performance, body composition and somatotype in competitive collegiate swimmers. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 1993, 33: 166-171.
  • Sleivert GG, Rowlands DS. Physical and physiological factors associated with success in the triathlon. Sports Med, 1996, 22: 8-18.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Sultana F, Brisswalter J, Lepers R, Hausswirth C, Bernard T. Effects of age and gender on Olympic triathlon performance. Sci Sport, 2008, 23: 130-135.[WoS][Crossref]
  • Tuuri G, Loftin M, Oescher J. Association of swim distance and age with body composition in adult female swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 2002, 34: 2110-2114.[Crossref]
  • Van Heest JL, Mahoney C, Herr L. Characteristics of elite open-water swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2004, 18: 302-305.[WoS]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.