The Effects of Terminating Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Anaerobic Power and Chosen Biochemical Variables in Male Subjects
Languages of publication
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alkaline creatine supplementation and resistance training termination on anaerobic power and chosen biochemical variables in men. Twenty-three untrained male subjects, which participated in this study, were divided into supplemented (S) (n=13, age 21.4±2.3 y) and placebo (PL) (n=10, age 22.1±2.6 y) groups. The participants from both groups performed resistance training 3 times a week, while subjects from group S were supplemented with alkaline creatine (ACr) for 4 weeks on their training day's with 66.8 mg/kg b.m., and on non training day's with 33.8 mg/kg b.m.To evaluate anaerobic power, the 30s Wingate test was applied. The following variables were registered: relative mean power - RMP (W/kg), relative peak power - RPP (W/kg), time of reaching peak power - TRPP (s) and relative total work - RTW (J/kg). The test was administrated 5 times - before and after 4 weeks of training and supplementation, as well as the first, second and third week after terminating creatine intake and the resistance exercise protocol. Body mass and body composition was also evaluated during the same time span. Blood samples were drawn at rest before the Wingate test for the assessment of IGF-1, hGH, LA and CrN concentration, as well as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. Supplementation with alkaline creatine, combined with a progressive resistance training program, did not significantly influence (ANOVA) the level of RMP (p=0.49), RPP (p=0.31), TRPP (p=0.51), and RTW (p=0.58) in untrained male subjects. In the supplemental group, there was a significant decrease (p<0.01) in TRPP following creatine supplementation and training, yet these values were not significantly different from the control group. The supplementation and training protocol did not influence significantly body mass (p=0.68), yet post hoc analysis indicate a significant increase in body mass (p<0.001) only in group S. The applied supplementation and training protocol did not influence (ANOVA) the concentration of serum CrN (p=0.81), hGH) (p=0.26), CK (p=0.49) and LDH (p=0.64) activities. No significant changes were observed in resting blood LA concentrations of the tested subjects. It can be concluded that the ergogenic effect of creatine intake and resistance training was maintained for a week after terminating supplementation and exercise. During the next 2 weeks de-adaptation occurred and most indices of anaerobic power returned to initial values.
1 - 1 - 2008
13 - 1 - 2009
- Arciero P. J., Hannibal N. S.,3rd, Nindl B. C., Gentile C. L., Hamed J., Vukovich M. D. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism. 2001, 50:1429-1434.[Crossref]
- Bessman S. P., Geiger P. J. Transport of energy in muscle: the phosphorylcreatine shuttle. Science, 1981, 211: 448-452.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Branch J. D. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance:A meta-analysis. Int. J. Sports Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2003, 13: 198-226.
- Buford T. W., Kreider R. B., Stout J. R., Greenwood M., Campbell B., Spano M., Ziegenfuss T., Lopez H., Landis J., Antonio J., International society of sports nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Int. J. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2007, 4:6 doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-6.[WoS][Crossref]
- Candow D. G., Chilibeck P. D. (2007) Effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training on muscle accretion in the elderly. J. Nutr. Health Aging 2007, 11(2): 185-188.
- Cribb P. J., Williams A. D., Hades A. Creatine-protein-carbohydrate supplement enhances responses to resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 2007, 39(11): 1961-1968.
- Davson B., Goodman C., Lawrence S. Preen D., Polglaze T., Fitzsimons M., Fournier P. Muscle phosphocreatine repletion following single and repeated short sprint effort. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 1997, 7: 206-213.
- Deldicque L., Louis M., Theisen D., Dehoux M., Thiessen J. P., Rennie M. J., Francaux M. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005, 37: 731-736.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Derave W., Eijnde B. O., Verbessem P. Ramaeckers M., Van Leemputte M., Richter E. A., Hespel P. Combined creatine and protein supplementation in conjunction with resistance training promotes muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose tolerance in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 2003, 94:1910-1916.
- Eckerson J. M., Bull A. A., Moore G. A. Effect of thirty days of creatine supplementation with phosphate salts on anaerobic working capacity and body weight in men. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2008, 22(3): 826-832.[WoS][Crossref]
- Ellington W. R. Evolution and physiological role of phosphagen systems. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 2001, 63:289-325.[Crossref]
- Finn J. P., Ebert T. R., Withers R. T., Carey M. F., Mackay M., Phillips J. W., Febbraio M. A. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur.J. Appl. Physiol. 2001, 84(3):238-243.[Crossref]
- Grande B. M., Graves S. Creatine supplementation: Forms, functions and effects. Strength Cond.J. 2005, 27(1):62-68.
- Haff G. G., Kirksey K. B. Creatine supplementation. Strength Cond.J. 1999, 21(4): 13-23.[WoS][Crossref]
- Hirvonen J., Rehunen S., Rusko H., Härkönen M. Breakdown of high-energy phosphate compounds and lactate accumulation during short supramaximal exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1987, 56: 253-259.[Crossref]
- Izquierdo M., Ibanez J., Gonzalez-Badillo J., Gorostiaga E. M. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, wndurance and sprint performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 34: 332-343.
- Jäger R., Metzger J., Lautmann K., Shyshakov V., Purpura M., Geiss K. R., Maassen N. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2008, 5:4 (electronic publication).[Crossref]
- Kreider R. B. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol. Cell Biochem. 2003, 244: 89-94.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Levesque D. G., Kenefick R. W., Quinn T. J. Creatine supplementation: impact on cycling sprint performance. J. Exerc. Physiol. online 2007, 10(4):17-28.
- McConell G. K., Shinwell J., Stephens T. J., Stathis C. G., Canny B. J., Snow R. J. Creatine supplementation reduced muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005, 37(12): 2057-2061.
- Odland L. M., MacDougall J. D., Tarnopolsky M. A., Elorriaga A., Borgmann A. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle (PCr) and short-term maximum power output. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1997, 29(2): 216-219.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Odland M. L., Macdougall D. J., Tarnopolsky M. A., Elorriaga A., Borgmann A. Effect of creatine supplementation on muscle PCr and short-term maximum power output. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29: 216-219[PubMed]
- Op't Eijnde B., Hespel P. (2001) Short-term creatine supplementation does not alter the hormonal response to resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1996, 33: 449-453.[Crossref]
- Pluim B. M., Ferrauti A., Broekhof F., Deutekom M., Gotzmann A., Kuipers H., Weber K. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br.J. Sports Med. 2006, 40: 507-512.
- Preen D, Dawson B., Goodman C., Lawrence S., Beilby J., Ching S. Effect of creatine supplementation on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33: 814-822.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Rawson E. S. Volek J. S. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training om muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2003, 17: 822-831.
- Rawson E. S., Gunn B., Clarkson P. M. The effects of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2001, 15:178-184
- Rawson E. S., Persky A. M. Mechanisms of muscular adaptations to creatine supplementation. Int. Sport Med. J. 2007, 8(2): 43-53.
- Santos R. V., Bassit R. A,., Caperuto E. C. Costa Rosa L. F. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness merkers after 30 km race. Life Sci. 2004, 75: 1917-1924.[Crossref]
- Schedel J. M., Tanaka H., Kiyonaga A Shindo M., Schutz Y. Acute creatine losading enhances human growth hormone secretion. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness. 2000, 40: 336-342.
- Smith S. A., Montain S. J., Matott R. P., Zientara G. P., Jolesz F. A., Fielding R. A. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998, 85(4): 1349-1356.
- Stevenson S. W., Dudley G. A. Dietary creatine supplementation and muscular adaptation to resistive overload. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33: 1304-1310.[Crossref][PubMed]
- Stroud M. A., Holliman D., Bell D., Green A. L., Macdonald I. A., Greenhaff P. L. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate accumulation during steady-state incremental tredmill exercise and recovery in man. Clin. Sci. (Lond) 1994, 87: 707-710.
- Syrotuik D. G. Bell G. J. Burnham R.,Sim L. L., Calvert R. A., Mac Lean I. M. Absolute and relative strength performance foolowing creatine monohydrate supplementation combined with periodized resistance training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2000, 14: 182-190.
- Terjung R. L., Clarkson P. M., Eichner E. R., Greenahaff P. L, Hespel P. J., Israel R. G., Kraemer W. J., Meyer R. A., Spriet L. L., Tarnopolsky M. A., Wagenmakers A. J., Williams M. H. American College of sports medicine roundable: the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2000, 32: 706-717.[PubMed]
- Volek J. S., Dunkan ND., Mazzetti S. A., Staron R. S., Putukian M., Gómez A. L., Pearson D. R., Fink W. J., Kraemer W. J. Peroformance and muscle fiber adaptation to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance traning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1999, 31: 1147-1156.[Crossref]
- Wallimann T., Wyss M., Brdiczka D., Nicolay K., Eppenberger H. M. Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes: the phospho-creatine circut for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem.J. 1992, 281:21-40.
- Wyss M., Kaddurah-Daouk R. Creatine and creatinine metabolism. Physiol. Rev. 2000, 80: 1107-1213.[PubMed]
- Yquel R. J., Arsac L. M., Manier G. Effect of creatine supplementation on phosphocreatine resinthesis, inorganic phosphate accumulation and pH during intermittant maximal exercise. J. Sports Sci. 2002, 20: 427-437.[Crossref]
- Zajac A., Waskiewicz Z., Poprzecki S., Cholewa J. Effects of creatine and HMβ supplementation on anaerobic power and body composition in basketball players. J. Human Kinetics 2004, 10: 95-108.
Publication order reference