This paper is devoted to the methods of preparation of the synthetic carbon adsorbents by carbonization of different polymer precursors and the research into the structural and surface properties of the obtained carbon adsorbents. The paper describes the research into the preparation of active carbons by carbonization of: polysufonated cation-exchanged resin, polyvinyl chloride and porous copolymer (4,4-diphenyl sulfone dimethacrylate). The carbonization of polymers was carried out in inactive atmosphere under the supervised conditions. The spherical shape of grains is a result of carbonization. The obtained carbon adsorbents were subjected to additional modification processes, i.e. hydrothermal activation in steam atmosphere, oxidation with nitric acid (6M HNO3) and heated in hydrogen (H2) atmosphere.The adsorption from aqueous solutions of the chosen organic compounds on the modified synthetic active carbons, the adsorption of organic compounds in relation to water as well as structural characteristics of carbon adsorbents are discussed in this paper. The interaction of the organic substances and the synthetic active carbons in aqueous solutions depends on the structural properties of carbons (volume of micro- and meso-pores, distribution of pore sizes, specific surface area) and their chemical properties (i.e. concentration of functional oxygen groups, presence of mineral admixtures).