Influence of Hypoxia Training on the Aerobic Capacity of an Elite Race Walker
Languages of publication
Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a combination of two different hypoxic training models (“live high-train high” and “live high-train low” with the use of a hypoxic tent) on the aerobic capacity of a elite race walker preparing for the 2009 IAAF World Championships. Methods. Evaluation of VO2max and the second ventilatory threshold was performed three times: 1) after four weeks training without hypoxic conditions, 2) after 28 days training in normoxia and sleeping for 8 h/day in a hypoxic tent (normobaric hypoxia, simulated hypoxia at 2133 m above sea level) and 3) after 26 days of classical altitude training at a moderate altitude of about 1800 m ASL (hypobaric hypoxia). The hematological parameters of the athlete’s blood (hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocytes and reticulocytes counts) were also measured after each stage. Results. After training in normoxia and sleeping in a hypoxic tent the ventilatory threshold was noted at a higher work intensity and featured an improvement in his hematological parameters, although VO2max was unchanged (compared to training without hypoxia). After classical altitude training a higher level of VO2max was observed (with a ventilatory threshold level similar to the level after training in normobaric hypoxia), but the hematological indices were lower than the levels observed before starting hypoxic training. Conclusions. The combination of two methods of hypoxic training improved the aerobic capacity of the test subject, but an improvement in the analyzed hematological indicators was observed only after LH + TL training. After training in LH + TH these indicators were lower in comparison to the levels prior hypoxic training. The changes in the hematological indices after hypoxic training did not seem to have a significant influence on aerobic capacity; the observed improvements in physical performance may result from other factors.
1 - 11 - 2012
26 - 01 - 2013
- Institute of Human Physiology, University School of Physical Education, al. Jana Pawła II 78, 31-571 Kraków, Poland, email@example.com
- Department of Theory and Methodology Athletics, University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland
- University of Social Sciences, Łódź, Poland
- 1. Loffredo B.M., Glazer J.L., The ergogenics of hypoxia training in athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2006, 5 (4), 203- 209, doi: 10.1097/01/CSMR.0000306508.63482.f8.[Crossref]
- 2. Richalet J.P., Gore C.J., Live and/or sleep high: train low, using normobaric hypoxia. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2008, 18, Suppl. 1, 29-37, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00830.x.[Crossref][WoS]
- 3. Bärtsch P., Dehnert C., Friedmann-Bette B., Tadibi V., Intermittent hypoxia at rest for improvement of athletic performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2008, 18, Suppl. 1, 50-56, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00832.x.[Crossref]
- 4. Friedmann-Bette B., Classical altitude training. Scand J MedSci Sports, 2008, 18, Suppl. 1, 11-20, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00828.x.[Crossref]
- 5. Wilber R.L., Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes. J Hum Sport Exerc, 2011, 6 (2), 271-286, doi: 10.4100/jhse.2011.62.07.[Crossref]
- 6. Levine B.D., Stray-Gundersen J., Point: positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are mediated primarily by augment red cell volume. J Appl Physiol, 2005, 99 (5), 2053-2055, doi: 10.1152/ japplphysiol.00877.2005.[Crossref]
- 7. Gore C.J., Hopkins W.G., Counterpoint: positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are not mediated primarily by augment red cell volume. J Appl Physiol, 2005, 99 (5), 2055-2057, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00820.2005.[Crossref]
- 8. Reinhard U., Müller P.H., Schmülling R.M., Determination of anaerobic threshold by ventilatory equivalent in normal individuals. Respiration, 1979, 38 (1), 36-42, doi: 10.1159/000194056.[Crossref]
- 9. Bhambhani Y., Singh M., Ventilatory thresholds during a graded exercise test. Respiration, 1985, 47 (2), 120-128, doi: 10.1159/000194758.[Crossref]
- 10. Levine B.D., Stray-Gundersen J., Living high-training low: effects of moderate-altitude acclimatization with lowaltitude training on performance. J Appl Physiol, 1997, 83 (1), 101-112.
- 11. Stray-Gundersen J., Chapman R.F., Levine B.D., Living high-training low altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. J ApplPhysiol, 2001, 91 (3), 1113-1120.
- 12. Ashenden M.J., Gore C.J., Dobson G.P., Boston T.T, Parisotto R., Emslie K.R. et al., Simulated moderate altitude elevates serum erythropoietin but does not increase reticulocyte production in well-trained runners. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2000, 81 (5), 428-435, doi: 10.1007/s004210050064.[Crossref]
- 13. Berglund B., High-altitude training. Aspects of haematological adaptation. Sports Med, 1992, 14 (5), 289-303.[Crossref]
- 14. Hahn A.G., Gore C.J., Martin D.T., Ashenden M.J., Roberts A.D., Logan P.A., An evaluation of the concept of living at moderate altitude and training near sea level. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, 2001, 128 (4), 777-789, doi: 10.1016/s1095-6433(01)00283-5.[Crossref]
- 15. Saunders P.U., Telford R.D., Pyne D.R., Cunningham R.B., Gore C.J., Hahn A.G. et al., Improved running economy in elite runners after 20 days of simulated moderate altitude exposure. J Appl Physiol, 2004, 96 (3), 931-937, doi: 10.1152/iapplphysiol.00725.2003.[Crossref]
- 16. Rusko H.K., Tikkanen H.O., Peltonen J.E., Altitude and endurance training. J Sports Sci, 2004, 22 (10), 928-944, doi: 10.1080/02640410400005933.[Crossref]
- 17. Sawka M.N., Convertino V.A., Eicher E.R., Schneider S.M., Young A.J., Blood volume: importance and adaptations to exercise training, environmental stresses, and trauma/ sickness. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000, 32 (2), 332-348.[Crossref]
- 18. Bőning D., Altitude and hypoxia training - a short review. Int J Sports Med, 1997, 18 (8), 565-570, doi: 10.1055/ s-2007-972682.[Crossref]
- 19. Gore C.J., Hahn A., Rice A., Bourdon P., Lawrence S., Walsh C. et al., Altitude training at 2690 m does not increase total haemoglobin mass or sea level VO2max in world champion track cyclists. J Sci Med Sport, 1998, 1 (3), 156-170, doi: 10.1016/s1440-2440(98)80011-x.[Crossref]
- 20. Brugniaux J.V., Schmitt L., Robach P., Nicolet G., Fouillot J.P., Moutereau S. et al., Eighteen days of “living high, training low” stimulate erythropoiesis and enhance aerobic performance in elite middle-distance runners. J ApplPhysiol, 2006, 100 (1), 203-211, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol. 00808.2005.[Crossref]
- 21. Robach P., Schmitt L., Brugniaux J.V., Duvallet A., Fouillot J.P., Moutereau S. et al., Living high - training low: effects on erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic performance in elite Nordic skiers. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2006, 97 (6), 695-705, doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0240-7.[Crossref]
- 22. Cornolo J., Fouillot J.P., Schmitt L., Povea C., Robach P., Richalet J.P., Interactions between exposure to hypoxia and training-induced autonomic adaptations in “live high and train low” session. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2006, 96 (4), 389-396, doi: 10.1007/s00421-005-0083-7.[Crossref]
- 23. Saunders P.U., Telford R.D., Pyne D.B., Gore C.J., Hahn A.G., Improved race performance in elite middledistance runners after cumulative altitude exposure. IntJ Sport Perform, 2009, 4 (1), 134-138.
- 24. Vogt M., Puntschart A., Geiser J., Zuleger C., Billeter R., Hoppeler H., Molecular adaptations in human skeletal muscle in endurance training under simulated hypoxic conditions. J Appl Physiol, 2001, 91 (1), 173-182.
Publication order reference