Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2012 | 13 | 4 | 337-343

Article title

Inter-Examiner, Within-Session and Between-Session Repeatability of Kinematic Gait Parameters Among Adult Subjects


Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. This research aimed to assess the repeatability of results obtained when analysing gait by means of a system designed for objective gait analysis in a single laboratory setting by a single examiner within-session and between-sessions. Methods. For the purpose of this research, the BTS Smart-D movement analysis system, produced by Capture Motion System of Italy, was used. Four healthy adults were examined. The subjects took part in three gait analysis testing sessions, with each session separated by a two-day break. During each session, two sets of measurements were taken for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed with StatSoft’s Statistica 7.1 software. Results. Within each session, all examined temporal and spatial parameters were found to be repeatable. Only in hip and knee joint rotation was repeatability not confirmed within session. Between the sessions, repeatability was confirmed in pelvic rotation, abduction/adduction of the knee joint and for all foot kinematic parameters. Conclusions. Conducting gait analysis by one researcher does not guarantee obtaining repeatable results for all measured kinematic parameters, either within one session or between sessions; caution ought to be exercised when interpreting results. Among the studied parameters, hip and knee joint rotation provided the most difficulty in obtaining repeatable results. For this reason, diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on such data require the utmost consideration.











Physical description


1 - 11 - 2012
26 - 01 - 2013


  • Józef Rusiecki University College, Wydział Fizjoterapii, Olsztyńska Szkoła Wyższa im. Józefa Rusieckiego ul. Bydgoska 33, 10-243 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, Poland
  • Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, Poland
  • Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, Poland
  • University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland


  • 1. McGinley J.L., Baker R., Wolfe R., Morris M.E., The reliability of three-dimensional kinematic gait measurements: A systematic review. Gait Posture, 2009, 29 (3), 360-369, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.09.003.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 2. Schwartz M.H., Trost J.P., Wervey R.A., Measurement and management of errors in quantitative gait data. Gait Posture, 2004, 20 (2), 196-203, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2003.09.011.[Crossref]
  • 3. Manca M., Leardini A., Cavazza S., Ferraresi G., Marchi P., Zanaga E. et al., Repeatability of a new protocol for gait analysis in adult subjects. Gait Posture, 2010, 32 (2), 282- 284, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.05.011.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 4. Sackett D.L., Rosenberg W.M., Gray J.A., Haynes B.R., Richardson W.S., Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ, 1996, 312, 71-72, doi: 10.1136/bmj.312.7023.71.[Crossref]
  • 5. Gage J.R., Interobserver variability of gait analysis. J Pediatr Orthop, 2003, 23 (3), 290-291.[Crossref]
  • 6. Gorton III G.E., Hebert D.A., Gannotti M.E., Assessment of the kinematic variability among 12 motion analysis laboratories. Gait Posture, 2009, 29 (3), 398-402, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.10.060.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 7. Assi A., Ghanem I., Lavaste F., Skalli W., Gait analysis in children and uncertainty assessment for Davis protocol and Gillette Gait Index. Gait Posture, 2009, 30 (1), 22-26, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.02.011.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 8. Davis III R.B., Ounpuu S., Tyburski D., Gage J.R., A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique. HumMov Sci, 1991, 10 (5), 575-587.
  • 9. Steinwender G., Saraph V., Scheiber S., Zwick E.B., Uitz C., Hackl K., Intrasubject repeatability of gait analysis data in normal and spastic children. Clin Biomech, 2000, 15 (2), 134-139.[Crossref]
  • 10. Hill T., Lewicki P., Statistics: methods and applications. StatSoft, Tulsa 2006.
  • 11. Kadaba M.P., Ramakrishnan H.K., Wootten M.E., Gainey J., Gorton G., Cochran G.V., Repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data in normal adult gait. J Orthop Res, 1989, 7 (6), 849-860, doi: 10.1002/ jor.1100070611.[Crossref]
  • 12. Van der Linden M.L., Kerr A.M., Hazlewood M.E., Hillman S.J.M., Robb J.E., Kinematic and kinetic gait characteristics of normal children walking at a range of clinically relevant speeds. J Pediatr Orthop, 2002, 22 (6), 800-806.
  • 13. Jordan K., Challis J.H., Newell K.M., Walking speed influences on gait cycle variability. Gait Posture, 2007, 26 (1), 128-134, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.08.010.[Crossref]
  • 14. Simoneau G.G., Kinesiology of Walking. In: Neumann D.A. (ed.), Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system. Foundations for Rehabilitation. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis 2010, 627-671.
  • 15. Leardini A., Sawacha Z., Paolini G., Ingrosso S., Nativo R., Benedetti M.G., A new anatomically based protocol for gait analysis in children. Gait Posture, 2007, 26 (4), 560- 571, doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.12.018.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 16. Benoit D.L., Ramsey D.K., Lamontagne M., Xu L., Wretenberg P., Renström P., In vivo knee kinematics during gait reveals new rotation profiles and smaller translations. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2007, 454, 81-88, doi: 10.1097/BLO.0b013e31802dc4d0.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 17. Lafortune M.A., Cavanagh P.R., Sommer III H.J., Kalenak A., Three-dimensional kinematics of the human knee during walking. J Biomech, 1992, 25 (4), 347-357, doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(92)90254-X.[Crossref]
  • 18. Chambers C., Goode B., Variability in gait measurements across multiple sites. Gait Posture, 1996, 4 (2), 167, doi: 10.1016/0966-6362(96)80573-X.[Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.