Purpose. The aim of this study was to verify and analyze the association between anthropometric indicators and serum lipid profiles in adolescents. Methods. The study included 250 adolescents aged 11-17 years from both sexes. The anthropometric variables measured were body weight, height and waist circumference. Body mass index and waist circumference were used to calculate a nutritional status rating (whether normal weight or overweight) and abdominal obesity, respectively. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method using automatic spectrophotometry and were categorized according to cutoff points established by the III Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis Prevention from the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Results. The overweight and abdominal obesity prevalence was found to be 23.6% and 40.0%, respectively. Undesirable total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were found in 40.8%, 8.4%, 36.0% and 13.6% of the studied adolescents, respectively. Overweight adolescents were 2.29 (CI 95%, 1.07-4.91) times more likely to have high triglyceride levels, and those with abdominal obesity were 2.47 (CI 95%, 1.14-5.37) times more likely to show high triglyceride levels. Conclusions. A high prevalence of overweight and abdominally obese adolescents, with high levels of serum lipid profiles, were observed. Moreover, overweight and abdominally obese adolescents were more likely to have high triglyceride levels.