Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2012 | 13 | 2 | 170-177

Article title

Mood Changes in Individuals Who Regularly Participate in Various Forms of Physical Activity


Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. A number of mental and physical benefits arise from leading an active lifestyle. Many forms of therapies make use of physical activity to reinforce rehabilitation as well as improve the condition of the body and mind. It is in this way that an individual can improve their well-being through cleansing the body of negative emotions and seek inner harmony, which is one of the most important features of mental health. However, the question arises whether all forms of physical activity improve the emotional state of an individual in the same way. A qualitative change in mood may be in fact related to the methodical factors present in physical activity (the type of exercise, the training method or its intensity and frequency) but also an instructor's personality, the age and gender of the participant as well as their physical fitness and motor skills, the subject's current social and mental state, environmental factors or other factors related to everyday life such as work, family, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in mood of physically active and highly fit people, aged 22-25 years, after various forms of physical activity and with different training methodologies. Methods. The Mood Adjective Check List (UMACL) was administered to 84 students before and after completing a course in a number of physical activities. Statistical methods were then applied to the results to measure the size of the differences and for any statistical significance. Results. The results found that regardless of the form of physical activity or class duration, there was a positive change in the mood of participants. Differences in size of the changes, when compared to the forms of physical activity and gender, were not found. Conclusions. The improvement in mood of fit and regularly physically active adults is observed regardless what form of physical activity is practiced.











Physical description


1 - 6 - 2012
28 - 6 - 2012


  • State Vocational College in Legnica, Poland
  • University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
  • University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
  • University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland


  • DiLorenzo T. M., Bargman E. P., Stucky-Ropp R., Brassington G. S., Frensch P. A., LaFontaine T., Long-term effects of aerobic exercise on psychological outcomes. Prev Med, 1999, 28 (1), 75-85, doi: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0385.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Ransford H. E., Palisi B. J., Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups. Soc Sci Med, 1996, 42 (11), 1555-1559, doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(95)00252-9.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Berger B. G., Motl R. W., Exercise and mood: a selective review and synthesis of research employing the profile of mood states. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2000, 12 (1), 69-92, doi: 10.1080/10413200008404214.[Crossref]
  • O'Connor P. J., Sleep, mood, and chronic pain problems. In: Poon L. W., Chodzko-Zajko W., Tomporowski P. D. (eds.), Active living, cognitive functioning and aging. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2006, 133-143.
  • Lewandowska K., Specjalski K., Jassem E., Słomiński J. M., Style of coping with stress and emotional functioning in patients with asthma [in Polish]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol, 2009, 77, 31-36.[PubMed]
  • Szczepańska J., Greń G., Woźniewski M., The effect of systematic physical exercise on the general mood and mood disorders in elderly people with mild cognitive deficiencies [in Polish]. Fizjoterapia, 2004, 12, 37-46.
  • Trzebińska E., Positive psychology [in Polish]. Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warszawa 2008.
  • Watson D., Mood and Temperament. Guilford Press, New York 2000.
  • Pańpuch Z., Sport according to the Plato and the Aristotle [in Polish]. Wychowawca, 2004, 7/8, 24-28.
  • Goryńska E., Polish adaptation of the Mood Adjective Checklist [in Polish]. In: Ciarkowska W., Matczak A. (eds.), Individual differences. Chosen studies inspired by the Regulating Theory of Temperament by Jan Strelau, Interdisciplinary Centre for Behaviour Genetics, UW, Warszawa 2001, 155-164.
  • Brown D. R., Wang Y., Ward A., Ebbeling C. B., Fortlage L., Puleo E. et al., Chronic psychological effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1995, 27 (5), 765-775.[PubMed]
  • Lane A. M., Lovejoy D. J., The effects of exercise on mood changes: the moderating effect of depressed mood. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2001, 41 (4), 539-545.
  • Netz Y., Lidor R., Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes. J Psychol, 2003, 137 (5), 405-419.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Guszkowska M., Physical activity and the course of stress transaction among youth [in Polish]. AWF, Warszawa 2005.
  • Kull M., Physical activity and mental health: relationships between depressiveness, psychological disorders and physical activity level in women. Biol Sport, 2003, 20 (2), 129-138.
  • Gauvin L., Rejeski W. J., Reboussin B. A., Contributions of acute bouts of vigorous physical activity to explaining diurnal variations in feeling states in active, middle-age women. Health Psychol, 2000, 19 (4), 365-375, doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.19.4.365.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Slawen L., Lee Ch., Mood and symptom reporting among middle-aged women: the relationship between menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, and exercise participation. Health Psychol, 1997, 16 (3), 203-208, doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.16.3.203.[Crossref]
  • Keyes C. L. M., The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. J Health Soc Behav, 2002, 43 (2), 207-222.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Thayer R. D., Calm Energy: How people regulate mood with food and exercise. Oxford University Press, New York 2003.
  • Hassmén P., Koivula N., Uutela A., Physical exercise and psychological well-being: A population study in Finland. Prev Med, 2000, 30 (1), 17-25, doi: 10.1006/pmed.1999.0597.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • LeUnes A., Updated bibliography on the profile of mood states in sport and exercise psychology research. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2000, 12 (1), 110-113, doi: 10.1080/10413200008404216.[Crossref]
  • Lane A. M., Terry P. C., Stevens M. J., Barney S., Dinsdale S. L., Mood responses to athletic performance in extreme environments. J Sports Sci, 2004, 22 (10), 886-897, doi: 10.1080/02640410400005875.[Crossref]
  • Raglin J., Eksten F., Garl T., Mood state responses to a preseason conditioning program in male collegiate basketball players. Int J Sport Psychol, 1995, 26, 214-225.
  • Terry P., Mood state profiles as indicators of performance among Olympic and World Championship athletes. J Sports Sci, 1994, 12, 214.
  • Park H. N., An H. G., Effects of the weight management program based self-efficacy for body composition, blood lipid profile, weight self-efficacy lifestyles, depression in middle-aged obese women. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, 2006, 36 (8), 1359-1366.[PubMed]
  • Guszkowska M., Kozdroń A., The influence of physical exercise on emotional states in older women [in Polish]. Gerontol Pol, 2009, 17 (2), 71-78.
  • Robakowski F., Robakowski J., Evolutionary concepts of affective disorders [in Polish]. Psychiatria Polska, 2006, 40 (3), 401-414.
  • Piotrowska-Całka E., Guszkowska M., Effects of aqua-aerobic on emotional states in women. Phys Educ Sport, 2007, 51, 11-14, doi: 10.2478/v10030-007-0016-9.[Crossref]
  • Mejia R., Green exercise may be good for your head. Environ Sci Technol, 2010, 44 (10), 3649-3649, doi: 10.1021/es101129n.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
  • Thompson Coon J., Boddy K., Stein K., Whear R., Barton J., Depledge M. H., Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A Systematic Review. Environ Sci Technol, 2011, 45 (5), 1761-1772, doi: 10.1021/es102947t.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • Pretty J., Peacock J., Hine R., Sellens M., South N., Griffin M., Green exercise in the UK countryside: Effects on health and psychological well-being, and implications for policy and planning. J Environ Plann Manag, 2007, 50 (2), 211-231, doi: 10.1080/09640560601156466.[Crossref]
  • Goryńska E., Mood Adjective Check List (UMACL) [in Polish]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego, Warszawa 2005.
  • Stefaniak T., Atlas of weight training. Part 1 [in Polish]. Wydawnictwo BK, Wrocław 1995.
  • McInman A. D., Berger B. G., Self-concept and mood changes associated with aerobic dance. Austr J Psychol, 1993, 45 (3), 134-140, doi: 10.1080/00049539308259130.[Crossref]
  • Guszkowska M., Sionek S., Changes in mood states and selected personality traits in women participating in a 12-week exercise program. Hum Mov, 2009, 88, 10 (2), 163-169, doi: 10.2478/v10038-009-0014-2.[Crossref]
  • Guszkowska M., State/trait anxiety and anxiolytic effects of acute physical exercises. Biomed Hum Kinet, 2009, 1, 6-10, doi: 10.2478/v10101-009-0003-0.[Crossref]
  • Barton J., Pretty J., What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis. Environ Sci Technol, 2010, 44 (10), 3947-3955, doi: 10.1021/es903183r.[PubMed][WoS][Crossref]
  • Schwartz S. E., Fernhall B., Plowman S. A., Effects of music on exercise performance. J Cardpulm Rehabil, 1990, 10, 312-316.[Crossref]
  • Seath L., Thow M., The effect of music on the perception of effort and mood during aerobic type exercise. Physiotherapy, 1995, 81 (10), 592-596, doi: 10.1016/S0031-9406(05)66640-0.[Crossref]
  • Matthews G., Jones D. M., Chamberlain A. G., Refining the measurement of mood: the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. Br J Psychol, 1990, 81 (1), 17-42, doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1990.tb02343.x.[Crossref]
  • Scully D., Kremer J., Meade M. M., Graham R., Dudgeon K., Physical exercise and psychological well being: a critical review. Br J Sports Med, 1998, 32, 111-120, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.32.2.111.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Reid K. J., Baron K. G., Lu B., Naylor E., Wolfe L., Zee P. C., Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia. Sleep Med, 2010, 11 (9), 934-940, doi: 10.1016/j.seep.2010.04.014.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • Larsen B. J., Diener E., Promises problems with the circumplex model of emotions. In: Clark M. S. (ed.) Review of Personality and Social Psychology: Emotions. Sage, Newbury Park 1992, 13, 25-59.
  • Modoio V. B., Antunes H. K., Gimenez P. R., Santiago M. L., Tufik S., Mello M. T., Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders? Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011, 66 (2), 255-260, doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000 200013.[Crossref][WoS]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.