Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2012 | 13 | 2 | 147-151

Article title

Does the Modification of Ball Mass Influence the Types of Attempted and Successful Shots in Youth Basketball?



Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. This study aimed at determining: (a) whether the effect of modifying ball mass allowed youth basketball players to attempt a greater number of lay-ups and hook shots during real games, and (b) whether the modification affected successful shots. Methods. Fifty-four boys from six basketball teams, aged between 10-11 years, participated in the study. The independent variable was ball mass and the dependent variable was the attempted and successful type of shots (set and jump shot, lay-ups, and hook shot). We established three situations in which four games were played with each of the following balls: (a) a regulation ball, (b) a ball of smaller mass (440 g), and (c) a ball of greater mass (540 g). Four observers were trained (intra- and inter-observer reliability > 0.96). Four observers recorded the data utilizing a systematized register from observation of the game videos. Results. A higher percentage of lay-ups were attempted with the 440-g ball in comparison with the regulation ball (U = 227906, p = 0.01, ES = 0.152) and with the 540-g ball (U = 218614, p = 0.01, ES = 0.160). A higher percentage of lay-ups were successful with the 440-g ball in comparison to the 540-g ball (U = 223080, p = 0.02, ES = 0.210). Conclusions. Only attempted lay-ups increased with the 440-g ball in comparison to the regulation ball, but the percentage of the rest of kinds of attempted shots and successful shots were similar when comparing the modified balls to the regulation ball.










Physical description


1 - 6 - 2012
28 - 6 - 2012


  • Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Catholic University St. Anthony of Murcia, Murcia, Spain


  • Palao J. M., Ortega E., Olmedilla A., Technical and tactical preferences among basketball players in formative years. Iberian Congress on Basketball Research, 2004, 4, 38-41, doi: 10.2466/ICBR.4.38-41.[Crossref]
  • Piñar M. I., Cardenas D., Conde J., Alarcon F., Torre E., Satisfaction in mini-basketball players. Iberian Congress on Basketball Research, 2007, 4, 122-125, doi: 10.2466/ICbR.4.122-125.[Crossref]
  • Arias J. L., Argudo F. M., Alonso J. I., Effect of two different forms of three-point line on game actions in girls' minibasketball. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2011, 33 (1), 9-22.
  • Ibáñez S. J., Lozano A., Martínez B., Analysis of shooting based on the shot and value of shooting, gender and players level [in Spanish]. In: Tavares F., Janeira M. A., Graça A., Pinto D., Brandão E. (eds.), Conference Proceedings of Current Trends in Basketball Review. FCDEF-UP, Porto 2001, 159-172.
  • Piñar M. I., Effect of rule modifications on some of the variables that determine the formative process of minibasketball players (9-11 years old) [in Spanish]. University of Granada, Granada 2005.
  • Arias J. L., Argudo F. M., Alonso J. I., Rules as didactical variables. An example in formative basketball [in Spanish]. Rev Int Med Cien Act Fis Dep, 2011, 11 (43), 491-512.
  • Chase M. A., Ewing M. E., Lirgg C. D., George T. R., The effects of equipment modification on children's self-efficacy and basketball shooting performance. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1994, 65 (2), 159-168.[Crossref]
  • Isaacs L. D., Karpman M. B., Factors effecting children's basketball shooting performance: A log-linear analysis. Carnegie School of Physical Education and Human Movement, 1981, 1, 29-32.
  • Regimbal C., Deller J., Plimpton C., Basketball size as related to children's preference, rated skill and scoring. Percept Mot Skills, 1992, 75, 867-872.
  • Satern M. N., Messier S. P., Keller-McNulty S., The effects of ball size and basket height on the mechanics of the basketball free throw. J Hum Mov Stud, 1989, 16, 123-137.
  • García J., Ibáñez S. J., Feu S., Cañadas M., Parejo I., Study of shot technique in basketball in E. B. A. league [in Spanish]. Retos. Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 2008, 14, 17-21.
  • Graça A., Competence model in invasion games: A didactic tool to teach basketball [in Portuguese]. In: Graça A., Pinto D., Mertens B., Multael M., Musch E., Timmers E. (eds.), Estudos 6. Actas do II Seminário Estudos Universitários en Basquetebol. FCDEF-UP, Porto 2006, 7-28.
  • Huston R. L., Grau C. A., Basketball shooting strategies - the free throw, direct shot and layup. Sports Eng, 2003, 6 (1), 49-64, doi: 10.1007/BF02844160.[Crossref]
  • Ibáñez S. J., García J., Feu S., Parejo I., Cañada M., Shot efficacy in the NBA: A multifactorial analysis [in Spanish]. CCD, 2009, 5 (10), 39-47.
  • Wissel H., Basketball: Steps to success. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1994.
  • Arias J. L., Argudo F. M., Alonso J. I., Review of rule modification in sport. J Sports Sci Med, 2011, 10 (1), 1-8.
  • Anguera M. T., Observation [in Spanish]. In: Moreno C. (ed.), Psychological assessment. Concept, process and application in development and intelligence areas. Sanz y Torres, Madrid 2003, 271-308.
  • Crisco J., Drewniak E., Alvarez M., Spenciner D., Physical and mechanical properties of various field lacrosse balls. J Appl Biomech, 2005, 21 (4), 383-393.[PubMed]
  • Graça A., Comparing the high and the low achievers' opportunity to participate in basketball game within physical education classes. In: Hughes M., Tavares F. (eds.), IV World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport. FCDEF-UP, Porto 1998, 127-134.
  • Burton A., Welch B., Dribbling performance in first-grade children: effect of ball and hand size and ball-size preferences. Phys Educat, 1990, 47 (1), 48-52.
  • Pellett T. L., Henschel-Pellett H. A., Harrison J. M., Influence of ball weight on junior high-school girls' volleyball performance. Percept Mot Skills, 1994, 78, 1379-1384.
  • Burton A. W., Greer N. L., Wiese D. M., Changes in overhand throwing patterns as a function of ball size. Pediatr Exerc Sci, 1992, 4, 50-67.
  • Brancazio P. J., Physics of basketball. Am J Phys, 1979, 49 (4), 356-365, doi: 10.1119/1.12511.[Crossref]
  • Maugh T. H., Physics of basketball: Those golden arches. Science, 1981, 81, 106-107.
  • Miller S., Bartlett R., The relationship between basket-ball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position. J Sports Sci, 1996, 14 (3), 243-253, doi: 10.1080/02640419608727708.[Crossref]
  • Tsitskaris G., Theoharopoulos A., Galanis D., Nikopoulou M., Types of shots used at the Greek national basketball championships according to the division and position of players. J Hum Mov Stud, 2002, 42, 43-52.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.