Improving Flexibility and Endurance of Elderly Women Through a Six-Month Training Programme
Languages of publication
Purpose. Advancing age is associated with predictable sensory, motor and cognitive changes, which may have a potential impact on an older person's ability to function effectively in society. The purpose of this study was to assess whether two slightly different half-year-long regular training programmes had a positive effect on flexibility, range of motion and endurance in a sample population of elderly persons. Also analysed was which programme was found to be more effective. Methods. A group of women (N = 42, M = 67.1 ± 4.5 years) was chosen from retired persons clubs from Eger, Hungary. They were randomly divided into three groups. The first group (N = 15, M = 66.2 ± 3.8 years) took part in a one-hour-long Pilates training session three times a week, the second group (N = 15, M = 67.1 ± 5.9 years) took part in an aqua-fitness class twice a week with one Pilates class once a week and the third group (N = 12, M = 68.2 ± 3.2 years) was the control group. Pre-and postmeasurements were conducted on: flexion of the right shoulder and hip, lumbar spine flexion, thoracolumbar spine flexion, trunk lateral flexion on the right side, a 6-minute walk test, and a 30-second sit-to-stand test. Significant inter-group differences could be found in all of the measurements. Data were analysed using statistical software with the Paired-Samples T-test and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (p < 0.05). Results. After the six-month regular training programmes no differences were found in the control group. For the two groups subjected to the training programmes all the other variables showed significant differences. The most remarkable results for the Pilates group were with the 6-minute walk and sit-to-stand test, while for the aqua-fitness and Pilates group shoulder and hip flexion. Conclusions. A half-year-long training program can considerably improve the physical performance elderly adults need in everyday life.
1 - 3 - 2012
3 - 4 - 2012
- Iván L., The newest results of gerontology, the chances and risk factors of healthy aging [in Hungarian]. Hippocrates, 2002, 6, 381-387.
- Chodzko-Zajko W. J., Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons. Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, 1998, 1-8.
- Poon L. W., Chodzko-Zajko W., Tomporowski P. D., Active living, cognitive functioning and aging. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2006, 18-53.
- Bálint G., Bors K., Szekeres L., Rehabilitation in osteoporosis [in Hungarian]. Rehabilitáció, 2005, 15 (3), 3-9.[WoS]
- Kuo Y.-L., Tully E. A., Galea M. P., Sagittal spinal posture after Pilates-based exercise in healthy older adults. Spine, 2009, 34 (10), 1046-1051, doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31819c11f8.[PubMed][WoS][Crossref]
- Chodzko-Zajko W. J.,Proctor D. N.,Fiatarone Singh M. A., Minson Ch.T., Nigg C. R., Salem G. J. et al., Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc, 2009, 41 (7), 1510-1530, doi: 10.1249MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c.
- Sidó Z., Szamosi K., The old age and sport [in Hungarian]. Hippocrates, 2005, 7 (5), 299-302.
- Herriott M. T., Colberg S. R., Parson H. K., Nunnold T., Vinik A. I., Effects of 8 weeks of flexibility and resistance training in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2004, 27 (12), 2988-2989, doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.12.2988.[PubMed]
- Jákó P., The function of physical activity in prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases [in Hungarian]. Metabolizmus, 2008, 6, 24-28.
- Cléroux J., Feldman R. D., Petrella R. J., Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 4. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Can Med Assoc J, 1999, 160 (Suppl. 9), S21-S28.
- Pihl E., Matsin T., Jürimäe T., Physical activity, musculosceletal disorders and cardiovascular risk factors in male physical education teachers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2002, 42 (3), 466-471.
- Pate R. R., Pratt M., Blair S. N., Haskell W. L., Macera C. A., Bouchard C. et al., Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA, 1995, 273 (5), 402-407, doi: 10.1001/jama.1995.03520290054029.[Crossref]
- Nelson M. E., Rejeski W. J., Blair S. N., Duncan P. W., Judge J. O., King A. C. et al., Physical activity and public health in older adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sport Exerc, 2007, 39 (8), 1435-1445, doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616aa2.[Crossref]
- Rikli R. E., Jones C. J., Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. J Aging Phys Activ, 1999, 7, 129-161.
- Emery K., De Serres S. J., McMillan A., Côté J. N., The effects of a Pilates training program on arm-trunk posture and movement. Clin Biomech, 2010, 25 (2), 124-130, doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.10.003.[WoS][Crossref]
- Kloubec J. A., Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance and posture. J Strength Cond Res, 2010, 24 (3), 661-667, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c277a6.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
- Rogers K., Gibson A. L., Eight-week traditional mat pilates training-program effects on adult fitness characteristics. Res Q Exer Sport, 2009, 80 (3), 569-574.
- Wang T. J., Belza B., Thompson F. E., Whitney J. D., Bennett K., Effects of aquatic exercise on flexibility, strength and aerobic fitness in adults with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Adv Nurs, 2007, 57 (2), 141-152, doi: 10. 1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04102.x.[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]
- Cress M. E., Assessing physical performance in older adults. In: Poon L. W., Chodzko-Zajko W., Tomporowski P. D. (eds.), Active living, cognitive functioning and aging. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2006, 113-132.
Publication order reference