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2011 | 12 | 4 | 337-341

Article title

Dynamical Asymmetry of Upper-Limb Movements During Swimming


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Purpose. This study aimed at introducing a method towards determining the dynamical asymmetry of the upper extremities during swimming and to find its relationship with lower-limb movements in children when swimming the breaststroke. Methods. Twenty boys participated in the research, where seven boys were found to perform incorrect lower-limb movements when swimming. Therefore, the subjects were divided into two groups, those who maintained correct lower-limb movements when swimming and those who did not. The subjects swam for short distances using either only their upper limbs or both upper and lower limbs. The water pressure that was exerted on the right and left hand of the subject was recorded for both tests. On the basis of the compiled data, the upper-limb movements' asymmetry index was calculated. Results. Incorrect lower extremity movements when performing the breaststroke resulted in increased upper-limb dynamical asymmetry. Conclusion. The method applied in this study enables one to diagnosis the dynamical asymmetry of upper-limb movements when swimming. Altogether, it was found in the examined group that incorrect lower-limb movements in the breaststroke did not decrease swimming efficiency. However, an increase of the upper extremities' dynamical asymmetry might have decreased the efficiency of the shoulder-girdle muscles' symmetrization. In the case of individuals performing incorrect lower-limb movements in the breaststroke, it is recommended to improve their performance or to swim with the upper limbs only.










Physical description


1 - 12 - 2011
25 - 12 - 2011


  • University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
  • University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland


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