Effect of Added Weights on the Characteristics of Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Walk-to-Run Gait Transition
Languages of publication
Purpose. In this study, the effect of added weights on the various force and time related characteristics of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the last five steps prior to walk-to-run transition was studied. Basic procedures. Experimental set up consisted of a force platform embedded treadmill. Sixteen college students performed experimental trials by carrying 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of their body weight. During each trial, after walking for about 30 seconds the speed of the treadmill was increased manually at a rate of 0.089 m/s/s (0.2 miles/hour) until the participant started running. Main findings. A significant interaction (weights × steps) was observed for the first peak of VGRF. The trough, second peak, impulse, and rate of force development of VGRF increased with added weights. During the last five walking steps, most of VGRF parameters changed in a nonlinear fashion. Conclusions. Based on the behavior of VGRF parameters and manually recorded preferred transition speed values, we argue that the added weights would reduce the walk-to-run transition speed. We further speculate that a combination of transition determinants actively participate in the reorganization process during the last five walking steps, prompting the gait transition.
1 - 3 - 2011
14 - 3 - 2011
- Diedrich F. J., Warren W. H. Jr., Why change gaits? Dynamics of the walk-run transition. J Exp Psychol Hum, 1995, 21, 183-202. DOI: 10.1037/0096-15220.127.116.11.[Crossref]
- Mercier J., Le Gallais D. L., Durand M., Goudal C., Micallef J. P., Préfaut C., Energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory responses at the transition between walking and running. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1994, 69, 525-529. DOI: 10.1007/BF00239870.[Crossref]
- Minetti A. E., Ardigo L. P., Saibene F., Mechanical determinants of gradient walking energetics in man. J Psychol, 1993, 472, 725-735.
- Getchell N., Whitall J., Transitions in gait as a function of physical parameters. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1997, 19, S55.
- Hanna A., Abernethy B., Neal R. J., Burgess-Limerick R., Triggers for the transition between human walking and running. In: Sparrow W. A. (ed.), Energetics of human activity. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2000, 124-164.
- Hreljac A., Effects of physical characteristics on the gait transition speed during human locomotion. Hum Mov Sci, 1995, 14, 205-216. DOI: 10.1016/0167-9457(95)00017-M.[Crossref]
- Raynor A. J., Yi C. J., Abernethy B., Jong Q. J., Are transitions in human gait determined by mechanical, kinetic or energetic factors? Hum Mov Sci, 2002, 21, 785-805. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-9457(02)00180-X.[Crossref]
- Kram R., Domingo A., Ferris D. P., Effect of reduced gravity on the preferred walk-run transition speed. J Exp Biol, 1997, 200, 821-826.
- Hreljac A., Determinants of the gait transition speed during human locomotion: kinematic factors. J Biomech, 1995, 28, 669-677. DOI:10.1016/0021-9290(94)00120-S.[Crossref]
- Hreljac A., Arata A., Ferber R., Mercer J. A., Row B. S., An electromyographical analysis of the role of dorsiflexors on the gait transition during human locomotion. J Appl Biomech, 2001, 17, 287-296.
- Hreljac A., Ferber R., The relationship between gait transition speed and dorsiflexor force production. Arch Physiol Biochem, 2000, 108, 90-98.
- Neptune R. R., Sasaki K., Ankle plantar flexor force production is an important determinant of the preferred walk-to-run transition speed. J Exp Biol, 2005, 208, 799-808. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.01435.[Crossref]
- Prilutsky B. I., Gregor R. J., Swing- and support-related muscle actions differentially trigger human walk-run and run-walk transitions. J Exp Biol, 2001, 204, 2277-2287.
- Hamill J., Bates B. T., Knutzen K. M., Ground reaction force symmetry during walking and running. Res Q Exercise Sport, 1984, 55, 289-293.
- Cavagna G. A., Thys H., Zamboni A., The sources of external work in level walking and running. J Psychol, 1976, 262, 639-657.
- Nilsson J., Thorstensson A., Ground reaction forces at different speeds of human walking and running. Acta Physiol Scand, 1989, 136, 217-227. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1989.tb08655.x.[Crossref]
- Li L., Hamill J., Characteristics of vertical ground reaction forces before gait transition. Res Q Exercise Sport, 2002, 73, 229-237.
- Farley C. T., Taylor C. R., A mechanical trigger for the trot-gallop transition in horses. Science, 1991, 253, 306-308.
- Biewener A. A., Farley C. T., Roberts T. J., Temaner M., Muscle Mechanical Advantage of Human Walking and Running: Implications for Energy Cost. J Appl Physiol, 2004, 97, 2266-2274. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00003.2004.[Crossref]
- Bartlett J. L., Kram R., Changing the demand on specific muscle groups affects the walk-run transition speed. J Exp Biol, 2008, 211, 1281-1288. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.011932.[Crossref][WoS]
- Lee C. R., Farley C. T., Determinants of the center of mass trajectory in human walking and running. J Exp Biol, 1998, 201, 2935-2944.
Publication order reference