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2010 | 11 | 2 | 191-199

Article title

Learning by Analogies: Implications for Performance and Attentional Processes Under Pressure


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Purpose. According to the self-focus theory of choking under pressure, conscious control of automated processes leads to a disruption of movement execution and deterioration in performance. In this study we examined whether analogy learning is a method to prevent choking under pressure. Basic procedures. Novice golfers learned the full swing over a period of six weeks either in a traditional way with technical instructions or with analogy instructions. Their performances were assessed in an indoor golf simulator. Attentional processes were measured using a dual task paradigm. Different kinds of learning instructions are linked to measures of skill-focused attention under low and high pressure conditions. Main findings. Performance scores in the dual task show that pressure leads to an increase in skill-focused attention of the technical learning group, compared to a decrease in skill-focused attention of the analogy learning group. Conclusions. Attentional processes under pressure are related to the method (analogy vs. technical instructions) implemented in the learning phase.










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1 - 12 - 2010
21 - 12 - 2010


  • Institute of Sports Science, University of Münster, Germany
  • Institute of Sports Science, University of Münster, Germany
  • Institute of Sports and Sports Science, University of Kassel, Germany


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