Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2010 | 11 | 2 | 124-131

Article title

The Hierarchical Structure of Selected Morphological and Motoric Variables in Ski Jumping



Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. The main purpose of the present research paper was to establish a hierarchical factor structure in a selected sample of morphological and motor variables of ski jumpers; such variables are base constituents of the potential performance model in ski jumping. Basic procedures. The subject sample was Slovene ski jumpers older than 15 years (n = 72), tested in May 2008. The research was done on a selection of 41 variables (12 basic morphological ones, seven from a special morphological index, 10 basic motoric ones and 12 special dynamic variables of take-off power). Main findings. Through factor analysis in the first phase, nine factors were excluded from the manifest variables of first orders: 1. Factor of velocity power (34.9% of variance); 2. Factor of longitudinal body dimensions (17.2% of variance); 3. Factor of morphological index of flight aerodynamics (12.2% of variance); 4. Factor of morphological index of take-off (7.3% of variance), 5. Factor of push-off explosive power (5.0% of variance), 6. Factor of informatic component of motorics (3.5% of variance); 7. Factor of specific morphological index of thigh dimensions (3.1% of variance), 8. Factor of transversal dimensions of body (2.4% of variance), 9. Factor of flexibility of hips (2.2% of variance). All nine factors of the first order explained 88% of variance of manifest variables. On the basis of configuration of nine factors of the first order in the second phase, four components were excluded from the second order with 62.7% of total variance. The first was component of specific take-off movement (22.9% of variance), followed by component of thigh dimension (14.5% of variance), then component of specific flight potential (13.0% of variance) and finally component of basic morphology (12.1% of variance). On the third level of factor analysis, two general factors of ski jumpers with 57.1% of total variance were found. The first was the general factor of specific movement of ski jumpers (29.8% of variance) and second the general factor of morphology (27.7% of variance). Conclusions. The research confirms the main hypothesis that hierarchical latent factor structures of manifest motor and morphological variables exist. The independent primary factors of the first order are crucial for understanding the latent dimensions of the potential performance model on the second and third level. This factor shows the structure between manifest dimensions more clearly and their relations are more understandable.










Physical description


1 - 12 - 2010
21 - 12 - 2010


  • Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia


  • Ulaga M., Čoh M., Jošt B., Validity of the dimensional configuration of the reduced potential performance model in ski jumping. Kinesiology, 2006, 38 (2), 185-192.
  • Virmavirta M., Komi P. V., Take-off analysis of a champion ski jumper. Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 1994, 1, 23-27.
  • Blahuš P., Hruby J., Kvapil J., Paichl, J., Systems theory approach to using statistics in social sciences. Charles University, Prague 1988.
  • Jost B., Tušak M., The structure of reduced potential performance model in ski jumping. J Hum Kinetics, 2002, 8, 3-15.
  • Schmölzer B., Müller W., The importance of being light: aerodynamic forces and weight in ski jumping. J Biomech, 2002, 35, 1059-1069.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Müller W., Determinants of ski-jump performance and implications for health, safety and fairness. Sports Med, 2009, 39 (2), 85-106.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Gredelj M., Metikoš D., Hošek A., Momirović K., A model of hierarchic structure of motoric abilities [in Croatian]. Kineziologija, 1975, 5 (2), 8-84.
  • Thomas J. R., Nelson J. K., Research methods in physical activity. 3rd edition, Human Kinetics, Champaign 1996.
  • Vaverka F., Biomechanics of Ski jumping [in Czech] Univerzita Palackeho, Olomouc 1987.
  • Virmavirta M., Komi P. V., The take-off forces in Ski jumping. Int J Sport Biomech, 1989, 5, 248-257.
  • Jost S., The factor structure of selected morphological variables in Ski jumpers. In: Milanović D., Prot F. (eds.), Proceedings book of the 5th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology "Kinesiology research trends and applications", September 10-14, 2008. Faculty of Kinesiology, Zagreb 2008, 929-932.
  • Müller W., Gröschl W., Müller R., Sudi K., Underweight in Ski jumping: The Solution of the Problem. Int Sports Med, 2006, 27 (11), 926-934. doi:10.1055/s-2006-923844.[Crossref]
  • Komi P. V., Virmavirta M., Ski-jumping take-off performance: Determining factors and methodological advances. In: Müller E., Schwameder H., Kornexl E., Rascher C. (eds.), Science and skiing. E & FN Spon, London 1997, 3-26.
  • Virmavirta M., Komi P. V., Measurement of take-off forces in ski jumping - part I. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1993, 3, 229-236. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.1993.tb00387.x.[Crossref]
  • Bobbert F. M., Schenau G., Coordination in vertical jumping. J Biomech, 1988, 21 (3), 249-262.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Sasaki T., Tsunoda K., Uchida E., The relation of muscle activity and joint power during ski jump takeoff action. In: Häkkinen K., Keskinen K. L., Komi P. V., Mero A. (eds.), Proceedings Book of abstracts, the XVth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, July 3-6, 1995 Jyväskyla. Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskyla, Jyväskyla, 1995, 800-801.
  • Sasaki T., Tsunoda K., Uchida E., Hoshino H., Ono M., Joint power production in take-off action during ski-jumping. In: Müller E., Schwameder H., Kornexl E., Rascher C. (eds.), Science and skiing. E & FN Spon, London 1997, 49-60.
  • Virmavirta M., Komi P. V., Measurement of take-off forces in ski jumping - part II. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1993, 3, 237-243. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.1993.tb00388.x.[Crossref]
  • Jošt B., Pustovrh J., Ulaga M., Jošt P., The latent dimensions of selected morphological and motor variables in ski jumpers. Studies in Physical Culture & Tourism, 2006, 13 (suppl.), 137-140.
  • O'Connor H., Olds T., Maughan J. R., Physique and performance for track and field events. J Sports Sci, 2007, 25 (S1), S49-S60. doi:10.1080/02640410701607296.[WoS][Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.