Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2010 | 11 | 1 | 42-44

Article title

"Objective Measurements" and "Non-Objective Observations" as Methods for Assessment of Athletic Fitness and Health


Title variants

Languages of publication



The sentence "measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so" (Galilei) can be seen as a postulate for using only objective physical or chemical methods in science to obtain hard data. Athletic fitness and health are complex states, however, including more than objective personality traits, described by hard data. Therefore, in the context of assessment of athletic fitness and health the questions arose: What does "measure" mean and how important are data that are immeasurable? Hard data are necessary, but not sufficient for assessment of all personality traits relevant for athletic fitness and health. Soft data are important as well. "Measure" in the context of athletic fitness and health should not only be restricted to physical or chemical methods, but should also include soft data, obtained by all systematic inside- and outside-observations using rating methods or only descriptions of qualitative items. For interpretation of both hard and soft data experience is necessary: this step of scientific work includes subjectivity in all cases. In order to gain experience, subjective methods must be trained, and this requires estimation of soft data and their appertaining methods, too. In conclusion, "measure" in the context of athletic fitness and health should include all objective and subjective methods for description of relevant personality traits.










Physical description


1 - 6 - 2010
30 - 7 - 2010


  • Institute of Sports Science, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany


  • Riuz Mariscal, A. M., To measure what information is measurable, 2005. Available from: URL:
  • Brunner, P. H., Rechberger, H., Practical Handbook of Material Flow Analysis. CRC Press, London 2003. Available from: URL:
  • Weisstein, E. W., Lavoisier Antoine (1743-1794), From Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography, 1996-2007. Available from: URL:
  • Reiser, S. J., Medicine and the Reign of Technology. Cambridge University Press, 100-101, 1981. Excerpt available from: URL:
  • Ulmer, H.-V., The 150 anniversary of the Kymographion: how to handle hard and soft data [in German] 1996. Available from: URL:
  • Stemmler, R., Decher, H., Reichstein, G., Steglich, W., Statistical methods in sports [in German]. Sportverlag, Berlin 1980.
  • Yates, F. E., Self-organizing systems. In: Boyd C. A. R., Noble D. (eds.), The Logic of Life. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993, 189-218.
  • Ulmer, H.-V., Complexity of athletic fitness with regard to selection and talent prognosis by a physiological viewpoint. Med Sportiva 2004, 8, 45-51. Available from: URL:
  • WHO - World Health Organization, Constitution of the World Health Organization. Basic Documents. Forty-fifth edition, Supplement, 2006. Available from: URL:
  • Lienert, G. A., Raatz, U., Testconstruction and testanalysis [in German]. Beltz - Psychologie Verlags Union, Weinheim 1998.
  • Kimminus, K., Berwanger, A., Ulmer, H.-V., About the interpersonal conformity of A- and B-score (figure skating) in an experimental situation [in German]. Sportwissenschaft, 2002, 32, 439-444. Available from: URL:

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.