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2009 | 10 | 1 | 31-34

Article title

The use of Biomechanics in Teaching Aikido


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Purpose. This paper aims to examine how the knowledge of biomechanics, specifically of mechanics principles used in teaching aikido techniques, affects the precision of aikido movements execution. It also aims to answer the question whether secondary-school teaching of solid-state mechanics, using examples from aikido and other sports, improves the learning outcomes. Basic procedures. The experiment involved 60 second- and third-form secondary-school students, divided into two groups: F (n = 27) and E (n = 33). The research on the understanding of mechanics principles was based on the results of a written test. Group F (experimental group) had been taught the principles of rotation mechanics, using examples from aikido and other sports, as opposed to group E (control group). Surprise tests were applied to assess the understanding of mechanics rather than retrieving of definitions learned by heart. The experimental group took a written test to assess their understanding of aikido mechanics. Over the period of one month the students in this group had been taught four selected aikido techniques. Using a ten-point grading scale the precision of execution of aikido techniques was evaluated. Main findings. Student's t-test and regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. A statistically significant difference was found between the aikido-enhanced and the conventional ways of teaching solidstate mechanics: the experimental group attained much higher test results than the control group. There was a strong correlation between understanding aikido mechanics and the performance of aikido techniques. Conclusions. Understanding aikido mechanics improves the performance of aikido techniques. Teaching solid-state mechanics, using examples from aikido and other sports, is more effective than teaching physics in the conventional way.











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1 - 6 - 2009
8 - 6 - 2009


  • Chair of Physical Education, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland


  • Mroczkowski A., Integration of teaching physical education with physics. In: Koszczyc T., Oleśniewicz P. (eds.), Integration in physical education [in Polish]. AWF, Wrocław 2002, 305-311.
  • Mroczkowski A., Teaching aikido by using the principles of mechanics. In: Cynarski W.J., Obodyński K. (eds.), Humanistic theory of martial arts. Concepts and problems [in Polish]. UR, Rzeszów 2003, 199-206.
  • Nowak L., Biomechanics for undergraduate students [in Polish]. Wszechnica Świętokrzyska, Kielce 2005.
  • Mroczkowski A., Pedagogical aspects of practicing aikido by children [in Polish]. Scientific Year's Issue Ido-Movement for Culture, 2007, 7, 103-107.
  • Rugloni G., Unification of Mind and Body and Ki Aikido. Ergaedizioni, Genova 1997.
  • Mroczkowski A., Health aspects of teaching aikido to children [in Polish]. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne, 2002, 4, 8-11.
  • Karpiński R., Swimming. Basic techniques. Teaching [in Polish]. Cebud, Katowice 2002.
  • Bober T., Sports techniques: biomechanical approach. In: Urbaniak C. (ed.), Issues in sports biomechanics: movement techniques [in Polish]. AWF, Warszawa 2003, 5-18.
  • Zatsiorsky W.M., Acquiring sports techniques: biomechanics and teaching. Technological progress and sports at the beginning of the 21st century [in Polish]. AWF, Wrocław 1999, 44-46.
  • Westbrook A., Ratti O., Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere. Charles E. Tutle, Tokyo 1970.
  • Bober T., Zawadzki J., Biomechanics of human motor system [in Polish]. AWF, Wrocław 2003.

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