Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2008 | 9 | 1 | 46-50

Article title

Influence of Football Training on Alignment of the Lower Limbs and Shaping of the Feet


Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. One of the aims of football training is to enhance the musculo-ligamentous apparatus and increase mobility of the lower limbs' joints. Proper football footwear is compulsory as games are being played on different surfaces. This has direct impact on the placement of one's feet and distribution of forces within feet arcs. The purpose of this study was to compare the placement of feet and toes of boys training football with their peers who did not practise football. Basic procedures. This study was carried out on 72 junior football players, aged 10-14 years, who were divided into 4 groups according to age and training level. The control group included 80 boys of similar age. The examination was performed using Moiré technique. Alignment of the knees was assessed visually. Computer analysis of the results covered the following parameters: Clarke's angle, α, β and γ angles, length-to-width index and KY index. Main findings. Feet anomalies were more frequent in footballers. In the older players these were mainly varus knees (around 40%), while the younger one's had valgus knees more often than the non-players. Hallux valgus (over 20%), especially of the left foot, and varus toes (over 90%) were also more frequent in the non-training boys. Besides there was a decrease of curvature of the longitudinal and transverse feet arcs that was more frequent in the right feet. However, longitudinal and transverse characteristics of the left feet arcs did not differ between the exercising and non-exercising groups. Conclusions. The examination of the feet confirmed the impact of football training on the placement of feet and toes and curvature of the feet arcs.










Physical description


1 - 6 - 2008
23 - 6 - 2008


  • University School of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland


  • Kapera R., Śledziewski D., Piłka nożna: unifikacja procesu szkolenia dzieci i młodzieży [in Polish]. Estrella, Warszawa 1997.
  • Talaga J., Trening piłki nożnej [in Polish]. COSiRCMSzKFiS, Warszawa 1997
  • Grabara M., Sight dysfunctions and defects of pelvic limb and feet. Human Movement, 2006, 7(1), 36-41.
  • Kasperczyk T., Wady postawy ciała - diagnostyka i leczenie [in Polish]. Kasper, Kraków 1997.
  • Lizis P., The new proposition of norm for longitudinal foot arch based on logistic regression for Clarke Index of children, aged 8-15 years from Nowa Huta [in Polish]. Rocznik Naukowy AWF, Kraków 1999, 28, 65-79.
  • Knapik H., The angles of valgity of the first toe and varus deformity of the fifth toe in school age children from the physiotherapeutic, orthopedic, and ergonomic perspective [in Polish]. Fizjoterapia Polska, 2001, 2, 135-142.
  • Lizis P., The shape problem of longitudinal arch foot boys and girls between 3-6 years old [in Polish]. Fizjoterapia, 1999, 1, 30-33.
  • Klata S., Vaulting of the feet of footballers. Master's Thesis, AWF, Katowice 1997.
  • Lizis P., The proposition to apply the Clarke's angle based on percentile reference curves with considering the asymmetry of topping the longitudinal arch foot of children in the developmental age [in Polish]. Fizjoterapia, 1995, 1, 4-7.
  • Bangsbo J., Sprawność fizyczna piłkarza: naukowe podstawy treningu. [in Polish]. COS, Warszawa 1999.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.