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2011 | 83 | 12 | 662-667

Article title

Surgical Treatment of Patients with Poland's Syndrome - Own Experience


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Poland's syndrome is characterized by variable clinical picture. Classic deformity consists of unilateral hypoplasia or aplasia of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral hand malformations. Additionally on the affected side hypoplasia or aplasia of the breast in women is observed. Variable malformations in Poland's syndrome cause that there is no uniform treatment schedule.The aim of the study was to analyze surgical treatment conducted in patients with Poland's syndrome in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic.Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of surgical treatment was carried out in the group of 66 patients with Poland's syndrome on the basis of their medical documentation.Results. The most common operation performed in women was breast reconstruction with silicone implant. Two men had their chest symmetrized by fat grafting. Syndactyly observed in patients with complete Poland's syndrome was surgically removed in early childhood.Conclusions. Treatment of patients with Poland's syndrome, mainly due to variable clinical picture, is individual and depends on age, sex and degree of deformity. In children with complete Poland's syndrome operations include surgical removing of syndactyly. Breast reconstruction in women with Poland's syndrome with silicone implants is known and safe method. Such procedures are performed after 18 years of age.









Physical description


1 - 12 - 2011
17 - 2 - 2012


  • Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Second Chair of Surgery, Medical University in Łódź
  • Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Second Chair of Surgery, Medical University in Łódź


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  • Al-Qattan MM, Al-Thunayan A: The middle phalanx in Poland syndrome. Ann Plast Surg 2005;54: 160-64.
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  • Hodgkinson DJ: The management of anterior chest wall deformity in patients presenting for breast augmentation. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002; 109: 1714-23.[PubMed]
  • Tvrdek M, Kletensky J, Svoboda S: Aplasia of the breast - reconstruction using a free tram flap. Acta Chir Plast 2001: 43: 39-41.[PubMed]
  • Foucras L, Grolleau JL, Chavoin JP: Poland's syndrome and hand's malformations: about a clinic series of 37 patients. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2005; 50: 138-45.
  • Samuels TH, Haider MA, Kirkbride P: Poland's syndrome: a mammographic presentation. Am J Roentgenol 1996; 166: 347-48.
  • Al-Qattan MM: Classification of hand anomalies in Poland's syndrome. Br J Plast Surg 2001; 54: 132-36.
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  • Liao HT, Cheng MH, Ulusal BG et al.: Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for successful simultaneous breast and chest wall reconstruction in a Poland anomaly patient. Ann Plast Surg 2005; 55: 422-26.
  • Lasko D, Thompson WR, Buckner DM et al.: Titanium mesh prosthesis repair of symptomatic Poland syndrome in a premature infant. J Pediatr Surg 2008; 43: 234-37.[WoS]
  • Borschel GH, Izenberg PH, Cederna PS: Endoscopically assisted reconstruction of male and female Poland syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002; 109: 1536-43.[PubMed]
  • Gatti JE: Poland's deformity reconstruction with a customized, extrasoft silicone prosthesis. Ann Plast Surg 1997; 39: 122-30.
  • Moir CR, Johnson CH: Poland's syndrome. Semin Pediatr Surg 2008; 17: 161-66.
  • Ribeiro RC, Saltz R, Mangles GM et al.: Clinical and radiographic Poland syndrome classification: a proposal. Aesthet Surg J 2009; 29: 494-504.[PubMed]
  • Santamarina R, Fudem G: Correction of Poland's deformity through a hemiareolar incision. Aesthet Surg J 2007; 27: 65-67.
  • Pereira LH, Sterodimas A: Poland aesthetic syndrome: aesthetic result after late seroma and implant removal without replacement. Aesthet Surg J 2008; 28: 101-03.[PubMed]
  • Pinsolle V, Chichery A, Grolleau JL et al.: Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2008; 61: 784-91.
  • Delay E, Sinna R, Chekaroua K et al.: Lipomodeling of Poland's syndrome: a new treatment of the thoracic deformity. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2010; 34: 218-25.
  • Pereira LH, Sabatovich O, Santana KP et al.: Surgical correction of Poland's syndrome in males - a purposely designed implant. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2008; 61: 393-99.

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