The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin E administered intraperitoneally on the prevention of peritoneal adhesion formation in rats on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic assessment of the adhesions.Material and methods. Experimental studies were performed on 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 rats in a group. Experimental group I (EI) included 10 rats which had peritoneal adhesions provoked by scraping of the wall of cecum and parietal peritoneum followed by intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E in the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Experimental group II (EII) included 10 rats which had peritoneal adhesions provoked by surgery, without administration of vitamin E. Control Group I (CI) included 10 rats which had the abdominal cavity opened without provoking peritoneal adhesions, and vitamin E was administered. Control Group II (CII) included 10 rats which had peritoneal adhesions provoked by surgery, and then lipid based solution was administered intraperitoneally. Control Group III (CIII) included 10 rats which had the abdominal cavity only opened and closed.Groups EI, CI and CII were the subject of the drugs intraperitoneal re-injection in first, second and third day after surgery. The animals were killed during the 8th postoperative day. Macroscopic examination of peritoneal adhesions using the classification reported by Nair was performed and samples for microscopic examination were excised.Results. In group EI peritoneal adhesions were formed in 60% rats (40% weak and 20% solid). In group EII peritoneal adhesions were found in all animals (30% weak and 70% solid). Reduction of the inflammatory response and less severe fibrosis were observed in animals with intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E.Conclusion. In the study, vitamin E administered intraperitoneally to rats decreased the intensity and extensiveness of peritoneal adhesions, which was confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic examinations.