The rectovaginal or rectovesical fistula is a rare complication after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Treatment is difficult and the result is often unsatisfactory.The aim of this paper was to present results of treatment with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps of rectovaginal and rectovesical fistulas as complication of low anterior rectal resection due to adenocarcinoma.Material and methods. We report six patients with rectovaginal or rectovesical fistulas as a postoperative complication after low anterior resection of rectal cancer in Department of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery in 2006-2008. Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps are used for rectovaginal and rectovesical fistulas treatment.Results. In the follow-up period from 4 to 30 months no rectovaginal or rectovesical fistula recurrences and any postoperative complications were noted in all cases.Conclusions. Transverse (TRAM) rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps are an effective, surgical method for rectovaginal or rectovesical fistulas treatement, especially in patients who recived pre or postoperative radiotherapy.