The aim of the study was to investigate the role of certain clinical characteristics and laboratory examination results as prognostic factors for complications after splenectomy in patients with hematological disorders.Material and methods. Ninety-eight adult patients with hematological disorders who underwent splenectomy in our department between years of 1994 and 2004. A retrospective analysis of the medical records from patients who underwent splenectomy was conducted; we divided the patients into 6 groups with various postoperative complications; patients without complications after splenectomy were the control group (the seventh group). Then, we compared patients from groups 1 - 6 with patients from the control group (group 7) before and after splenectomy with regard to various parameters including age, sex, presence of splenomegaly or accessory spleen, the operation's duration, hemoglobin level, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and plateletes, levels of protein and fibrinogen, activity of prothrombin, INR, APTT, TT, proteinogram and levels of IgG, IgM and IgA.Results. We found that postoperative complications, especially early complications, were more common in groups with malignant hematological complications and in older patients. Infection complications appear more often in men than in women with benign hematological disorders. The sustained platelet level elevation after splenectomy is positively associated with a higher number of thrombotic complications. Also, a lower level of gamma globulin, IgG and IgM after splenectomy correlated with a higher number of infection complications.Conclusions. Splenectomy in patients with hematological disorders is burdened with small risks of postoperative complications. Some clinical and laboratory parameters can be used to select the group of patients with higher risks of complications, but there remains a lack of objective prognostic factors which are sure in every clinical situation.